agriculture पशुपालन

Pig Farming – Commercial Modern Concept in India

Pig Farming
Written by bheru lal gaderi

Pig farming (सुअर पालन) is a profitable occupation, especially for small and marginal farmers. It requires minimum capital investment and labor. The return on the investment is quick and high. Within a very short period, piglings achieve marketable maturity.


Pig Farming

Image Credit – CRYSTAGO INC

Read also – Milking Machine Operating Producer in the Dairy Farm

The challenges faced by our country in securing the food as well as nutritional security to fast growing population need an integrated approach for livestock farming. Among the various livestock species, piggery is a most potential source of meat production and more efficient feed converters after the broiler. Apart from providing meat, it is also a source of bristles and manure. Pig farming will provide employment opportunities to seasonally employed rural farmers and supplementary income to improve their living standards.

The pig farming constitutes the livelihood of rural poor belonging to the lowest socio-economic strata and they have no means to undertake scientific pig farming with improved foundation stock, proper housing, feeding, and management. Therefore, suitable schemes to popularise the scientific pig breeding cum rearing of meat-producing animals with adequate financial provisions are necessary to modernize the Indian pig industry and to improve the productivity of small-sized rural pig farms.

Despite the fact that the cost of good quality pork is far cheaper than that of mutton, the religious restrictions. and rearing of pigs under unhygienic surroundings still stands in the way of consumption of pork. Apart from traditional cultural practices, prevailing in different parts of the country, insufficient capital for implementing innovations in pig husbandry, lack of appropriate technology, the poor educational background of the pig farm operators and inadequate means of disseminating worthwhile changes in pig husbandry are the various problems that inhibit efficient pig production. The impetus to increase pig production in India, to a large extent, depends on the acceptance of pork as a decent quality food capable of overcoming the deficiency of animal protein in the diet of common man, and on the establishment of economic superiority of pigs in rural farms which practice mixed farming.

The most suitable strategy for successful commercial pig production is to choose areas near population centers or cities from where improved production techniques and better breeding stock can be gradually disseminated to the pig farmers living in remote rural areas. Piggery farms in public sector should arrange to supply weaned piglets (two montils old) to the farmers who must be provided with a basic input of feed and health through institutional credits. The pig should be procured from the farmers after attaining the weight between 60 and 70kg by the cooperative or government agencies and arrangement should be made for profitable marketing in population centers or cities, where there is a greater demand for pork. The pig rearers should be paid adequately.

Pig production is basically an enterprise which is able to convert inedible or inferior quality food into the food rich in animal protein. Pig is considered a machine because they convert grain, pasture, and other low-quality feed into Pork which is used as human food.

Read also – Goat Farming Concept of Zero Grazing Stall Feed

There are three main reasons for which one can be attracted to pig farming-

  1. Pigs may be maintained with low-quality feed.
  2. In pigs, carcass yield is highest among other food animals, and
  3. There is a high fertility in pigs which assures net income to the producer.

Despite the fact that pig rearing is a profitable enterprise most of the progressive farmers even today hesitate to adopt it due to prejudice sentiments in our society against pig farming. For many others, there is a religious taboo against the pig. A majority of meat eaters also do not consume pork. In spite of these drawbacks, the consumption of pigs has greatly increased in recent years due to nutritional awareness in people. Pig is a highly prolific breeder and cheap source of protein. Pork as a source of animal protein is gaining popularity in India and pork products will be in greater demands in years to come.

Swine producers must raise pigs which are high in lean meat and low in fat if they wish to keep the consumer market. The ultimate goal in all pig production is to produce efficiently and profitably a pig that yields a carcass high in the cuts of pork desired by the consumer.

The high carcass yield attracts the farmers because of the better returns within the shortest possible time. High fertility in pigs assumes income to the reader round the year. To bring about improvement in the productivity of pork and other piggery products extensive crossbreeding programme has been taken up to develop animals of large size, better feed conversion efficiency,  high dressing percentage and better quality pork.

Read also – अधिक दूध उत्पादन कैसे कर? स्वदेशी गौ पशुओं से

Selection for Breed of Pigs:-

Certain factors are important in selecting a breed of pigs for a prolific enterprise. The goal in pig production is to produce large litters of pigs, which can be grown out rapidly and economically, which fetch top market price to gain the maximum return on profit. Pork producers must decide which breed or breeds will fit but in their breeding programs.

The following factors must be given careful consideration in the selection of breed of pigs:-

  • Availability of good breeding stock: the Breeding stock of good quality should be available in the community or nearby.
  • Prolificness: The ability of sows to produce and nourish large litters of healthy pigs is very important in selecting breeding stock.
  • Growth ability: There are differences among the breeds in their ability to make rapid gains.
  • Temperament: The animals should be active but should have a good physique and be easily handled.
  • Carcass quality: Carcass produced by the animal should high in lean cuts and low in lard and fat cuts.
  • Efficient use of feed: Some breeds are more efficient in converting feed to pork.
  • Market demand: The extent to which the breed is in demand in the community or in the market is most important.
  • Disease resistance: Breeds should be disease resistant to the maximum extent.
  • Feeds available: Some breeds are thought to be better rustlers than others and as a result, do better on poor pastures and on limited rations.

Read also – Techniques & Procedure of Post-Mortem(PM) Examination of Animals

Selection of Gilt or Sow:-

In selecting gilt or sow, the primary aim is to secure a female that will produce a large litter of fast-growing pigs, capable of being marketable weights at an age of six months or less.

Following points should be taken into consideration:-

  1. Appearance: In selecting gilt or sow on the basis of appearance following main aspects should be considered :
    •   General form or types
    •   Size or weight for age
    •   Development in the regions of high priced cuts of pork
    •   Quality
  2. Pedigree: The pedigree is the statement of an animal’s ancestry. In selecting breeding stock, choose only sow from large litters, which is a heritable trait.
  3. Performance: It is more desirable to consider actual performance or the productive ability of an animal. Birth weight of pigs indicates the ability to make rapid and economical gains. The weight at weaning age is a proof of efficient growth and also an indication of the milking ability of the gilts.
  4. Conformation: Selecting gilts from large litters for gaining rapid growth with efficient feed conversion,   importance should be given to the good confirmation of the animal. A mature gilt should have a feminine appearance with smooth shoulders and an excellent hair coat. The bone should be of good
    size but not coarse or extensively heavy. The udder of the sow should be well developed with 12 to 14 sound teats. The teats should be prominent and well placed.
  5. Prepotency: Prepotency is the ability to transmit characteristics to the offspring to a marked degree. It refers to either male or female. From the genetic point of view, there are two requisites that an animal must possess:-
    (i) Dominance
    (ii) Homozygosity

Read also – Roll of CBC (Blood Test) in Animal Diseases Diagnostic

Selection of Boar:-

  • The following points should be taken into consideration while selecting a boar for breeding purpose.
  • Choose the only boar from large litters. The ideal number is from 10 to 12 pigs per litter.
  • The boar is half the herd. Each pig gets half the genetic make up from each parent. The contribution of half the genetics by the boar  is more valuable than the sow.
  • Feed conversion efficiency and carcass quality has considerable influence on the future performance of the progeny.
  • Boar should have the specific breed characteristics and should be masculine.
  • The legs should be squarely set.
  • Boar should have well-developed sex organ. The testicles should be prominent and of equal size.
  • Pedigree of the animal should indicate good performance of its ancestors.
  • Good health and a quiet disposition are factors which have to be favorably considered.

Management of Piglets:-

It has been estimated that from 25 to 30% of piglets that are farrowed fail to reach weaning age of eight weeks due to certain reasons like non-availability of sufficient milk and other feeds, due to some injury or disease or other unscientific managemental practices. Therefore, the management of piglets under hygienic conditions is necessary.

Read also – राजस्थान में पशुपालन योजना एवं अनुदान

Care of piglets at birth:-

  1. Remove the piglets soon after they are farrowed.
  2. Clean all piglets and make their body dry.
  3. Make breathing passages of all baby pigs clear.
  4. Cut the naval cord with sterilized scissor leaving 3 cm from naval and disinfect by application of tincture of iodine.
  5. Allow piglets to suckle milk from mother sow for about 8 to 10 times in 24 hours. Protect the baby pigs from trampling by the sow.

Feeding of piglets:-

Age Daily feed Cumulative feed in kg, Birth to 1 month Mother milk:-

  • 1 to 2 months 0.5 kg 15
  • 2 to 3 months 1.0 kg 30
  • 3 to 4 months 1.2 36
  • 4 to 5 months 2.0 60
  • 5 to 6 months 2.5 75

Note:- About 216 kg. Of total feed is expected to produce a pig of 70 kg body weight in 6 months.

Prevention of anaemia:-

It is a highly fatal disease of suckling pigs caused by a marked decrease in haemoglobin and fatty degeneration of the liver.


Lack of iron and copper salts in the milk of sow kept in indoor pens, on the concrete floor and limited milk diet from the sow. Suckling pigs of about 3 to 6 weeks age are mostly affected.


Pigs are dull and inactive, fatigued, lack of vigour. Pig shows dyspnea, thumps and rough coats, depression on the slight exertion. Pig may be weak and thin, and muscles are flabby. Skin over the neck and mucus membrane are pale. Pigs die suddenly and wrinkles are found over the legs. Pigs may develop diarrhoea.

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Prevention and treatment:-

1.  Add a small amount of iron and copper in pigs diet @ 25 mg of iron and 5 mg of copper/day/pig.
2.  Iron sulfate – 3.6 ounces
Water – 5 quarts
Note:- Feed 1 dram daily.
3. Paint the udder of sow daily with the following mixture:
Iron sulfate – 500 g
Copper sulfate – 70 g
Sugar – 500 g
Water – 10 lit
4. Allow piglets to free access for parasite-free runs with fresh soil.
5. Intra-muscular injection of the iron-dextrose compound.

Read also – पशुओं में बांझपन – कारण और उपचार एवं प्रजनन विकार

Creep Feeding:-

Start feeding piglet creep feed from 2 to 3 weeks age for proper growth and development.

Removal of needle teeth:-

Baby pigs at birth have 4 pairs of sharp teeth on each jaw called needle teeth. These are of not any use to piglets and may cause injury to mothers udder. These should be clipped by means of plier. Care be taken not to injure jaw or gum piglet.

Raising orphan piglets:-

Causes of orphan piglets:-
  • Large size litters than a sow can raise.
  • Death of sow after farrowing.
  • Failure of lactation.
  • Mastitis.

Method of raising:-

Use of foster sow.

1.  Use of milk replacer.

A. Egg yolk-1
B. Cow milk-1 kg Mix thoroughly

Weaning piglets:-

Wean the piglets at 8 weeks of age.

  • For weaning separate the sow from piglets for few hours every day.
  • Supply creep feed with 18% crude protein.
  • Deworm the weaned piglets at 10 week age.

Read also – Economics of the Hydroponics fodder production unit

Causes of preweaning mortality:-

Almost 61.33% death of piglets occurs in the first week. Hence good husbandry practices in early life will be profitable. The major causes of death were found to be agalactia, pneumonia, and gastroenteritis. Strict hygienic measures may help in reducing the mortality due to infectious diseases. Piglets with birth weight were prone to agalactia, trampling and infectious diseases. Therefore, special attention to pregnant sow nutrition may reduce
preweaning mortality.

Castration of piglets:-

Castration of Piglets is essential to achieve following goals: To eliminate undesirable males.

  • To prevent indiscriminate breeding.
  • To make animals more docile.
  • Prevent boar odor in cooked meat.
  • Develop pork of superior quality.

Castration is done in the males which are not selected for the breeding purpose and this practice is performed at the age of 3 to 4 weeks.


For this purpose operation method is adopted and following steps are taken:-

  • Secure the piglets and make it lie down on the dorsal side and grasp feet under control.
  • Make hands and castrating knife clean and sterilize with spirit soaked cotton.
  • Wash the scrotum with an antiseptic solution of acriflavin.
  • Make an incision on the scrotum on each side deep enough extending the cuts well down to permit proper drainage.
  • Remove the testes with its membrane by pulling them backward, and bring with them as much cord possible and break it by cutting.
  • Scrotum and surrounding parts must again be disinfected thoroughly with tincture iodine.
  • Apply the sulphanelamide powder mixed with iodoform (fly repellent) to prevent infection or other complication.

Read also – Blood Protozoan Diseases of Ruminants


Identification of pigs is essential:-

  • To maintain proper record of pigs.
  • To ensure proper care in feed the ng of pigs.
  • Have better managemental practices wherever needed.
  • Designate animals properly.


Ear notching is the common method used for marking and identification of pigs which is done as under:-

  • Procure and hold the piglet.
  • Sterilize the side ear punch and central ear punch or pair of sharp scissors or pincers.
  • Clean the ear with the help of cotton sprit.
  • Side ear notches be made by a punch.
  • In case of the hole, if needed, make use of sterilized central ear punch.

Read also – पशुओं में उग्र उपच (आफरा) कारण एवं उपचार

Brood Management:-

For perfect farrowing and proper rearing of newly born piglets pig brooders should be made available at a pig farm.


Coarse ground corncobs, wood shavings, fine straw or sawdust may be used for bedding in the pig house. Too much bredding or coarse hay  and straw bedding  may result in the loss of pigs. The bedding should be kept clean, dry and well distributed. Removing the sow from the pen each morning and evening, for brief exercise, helps to keep the pen clean and dry.

Guard Rails:-

A number of devices have been developed to keep sows from lying on the pigs. A simple device is the guard rail which is placed on the three back sides of the pen, about 8 to 10 ” from the wall and 8 to 10’’ from the floor. These may be made of metal pipe or wooden poles. These should be installed few days before the sow is due to farrow, so that she will be used to them.

Maintenance of temperature:-

The temperature in the farrowing house should range from 50 to 60 ˚ F. When the temperature below 50 ˚ F, the little pigs chill and may get cold. The use of electric bulbs in the farrowing house is recommended for the first week or so after farrowing when the weather conditions are unfavorable. The heat lamp or brooder not only provides heat but
also attracts the pigs away from the sow. In wiring, a building for pig brooders, provide a permanent and separate electric circuit with a maximum of 1500 Watts on each circuit protected by a 15-ampere fuse.


For proper cleaning the farrowing pen, all dust and dirt should be removed and the floors and walls from 1.5 to 2 ” from the floor should be scrubbed with boiling lime water or disinfected by use of a steam cleaner. Equipment used in the pen should also be cleaned and sprayed. The sides, underline, feet and legs of the sow should be brushed and washed with soap and warm water before she is placed in the farrowing pen.

Read also – बाईपास वसा की डेयरी पशुओं में उपयोगिता

Characteristics of a good broody sow:-

A mature good broody sow should have the following characteristics:-

  • The sow should possess the medium-long body and a strong well – arched back.
  • The body should be deep sided and has the capacity of the chest and middle which ensures good feeding quality and vigor.
  • The sow should have well developed deep and full hams and good on her feet and legs.
  • She has prominent eyes and good feminine characters.
  • The broody sow should have smooth shoulders, wide and well-developedn and excellent hair coat.
  • The refinement of the head and ear, shoulder and hair coat are important items in selecting female herd material.
  • The udder of sow should be well developed with twelve or fourteen teats which should be sound, prominent and well spaced.
  • Most farmers select gilts which should possess many of the characteristics desired in the future broody sow.

Management of Pig Farming:-

For the proper management of a pig farm and to earn maximum profit following points should be taken into consideration.

Management practices involved:-

Age determination:-

Age of pig or piglets is determined with the help of teeth in his mouth. An adult pig has a sum of 44 teeth as below:-

2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 3/3) = 44

The eruption of all temporary teeth is completed by the age of 5 months. In case of the permanent teeth-1st pair (corner) at 6 months age, 2nd pair lateral at 10 months age, 3rd pair middle at 12 months age and 4th pair central erupts at the age of 1.5 years.

Read also – बकरी पालन: एक प्रभावी आर्थिक व्यवसाय

Handling of pigs:-

For handling the pig, pig catcher or short ropes are used. The nose ring is used for controlling notorious pigs.


To eliminate undesirable males and to develop pork of superior quality piglets are castrated at 3 to 4 weeks age with the help of double blade knife.


To ensure proper care in feeding and better management practices wherever needed and to maintain proper records of the animal, the individual pig is identified. For this purpose, ear notching is the common method used for marking the pigs.

Pig exercising:-

To keep animals fit, exercise limited but it is essential each day. The exercise of pigs is performed usually by providing run – out in the uncovered area and free access to pasture.Hog wallows:-

  • Pig needs a wallow during summer because they have relatively few sweat glands.
  • Wallowing means a water pool where pigs enter into water and cool their body in summer.
  • This pool is especially needed for fattening and breeding animals. Wallow made of concrete and cement with proper drainage system be made. Mud wallow is not desirable because it causes unsanitary conditions. Size of wallow depends upon size and number of animals. A wallow of 3 meters length, 2 meters width and 45cm depth will easily hold a herd of 20 hogs of various ages.

Read also – चूजों का उचित प्रबंधन एवं उचित रख-रखाव

Disposal of manure:-

Manure produced by pigs should be removed twice daily by means of wheel barrow and shovel and disposed into a pit for decomposition. Such manure will return 75 per cent of its fertilizing value to soil. The production of manure from each adult hog is about 2kg per day. Manure pits should be about 200 meters away from the pig house.
Disinfection of pig houses:-
Following procedure must be adopted for disinfection of pig houses:-

  • Scraping floor and walls to remove manure completely.
  • Sweep well manger and feed troughs with the help of brush and hot water.
  • Burn all scrapings and sweepings.
  • Wash drinking water trough with disinfectant solution.
  • Dispose of all bedding and manure frequently.
  • In case of earthen floor remove 15cm topsoil and replace it by new soil.
  • White wash all walls, partitions etc.
  • Expose floor to sunlight.

Read also – स्वच्छ दूध उत्पादन की विशेषताएं एवं प्रबंधन

Salient Points related to pig production:-

  • Aug.- Sep. and Feb.- March months are the breeding seasons of the pigs.
  • Gestation period of Sow is 112-114 days and heat period is 2-3 days.
  • Oestrus cycle is repeated in sows at 6-10 days interval.
  • In India, a maximum number of pigs are found in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Age of puberty in pigs is 6-7 months and breeding age of gilts is 10-12 months.
  • A Sow can birth 10-12 piglets at one farrowing.
  • Piglets should be castrated at the age of 4-6 weeks.
  • Market age of fattening pigs is about 6 months.
  • The first day of heat and second day of onset of heat in sows is proper time of mating.
  • Farrowing interval in sow is about 7-8 months.
  • Generally, sows are known to breed for 8-10 years and she can perform farrowing about 6 times during this period.
  • The average body temperature of the pig is 1020 F, Pulse rate 60 to 80/ minute and respiration rate 8-18/minute.
  • An extra allowance of grains should be provided for meat, milk production and pregnancy also.
  • Green leguminous fodder at least 1-2 Kg/ day/about animal should be fed.
  • Pig feed incorporated with vegetable wastes refuse from hostels and restaurants, damaged foodgrains unsuitable for human consumption and leftover feed will minimize the cost of ration and fetch a maximum profit.

Read also – जुनोसिस: पशुओं से मनुष्य में होने वाला संक्रामक रोग कारण एवं बचाव

Health and Diseases:-

It is important for the farmer/ animal keeper to know the common signs of apparently healthy pigs so that the diseased conditions of the pigs can be easily identified. The general signs of healthy pigs are given as below:-

  • The pigs remain alert and active.
  • The head is moderately stretched forward and upright parallel to does the line.
  • The feces are semi-solid.
  • Ears are alert and eyes are bright.
  • Tail movement is also frequent.
  • Pig consumes a normal amount of ration and water.
  • Respiration, pulse, and temperature of the body remain normal.
  • There should not be any abnormal discharge from the natural opening of the body.
  • There should not be any reduction in body weight.
  • Milk yield should not be reduced in sows.

Feeding Management of pigs:-

Points to be considered while formulating feeding ration

  • Most economical ingredients should be selected.
  • Grains- maize, sorghum, oat, other millets, wheat and rice should form the basic ingredients.
  • Protein supplements – oil cakes and fishmeal and meat meal.
  • No vitamin supplements are necessary if the pigs are allowed to pasture or are fed fresh green legumes. Vitamin B 12 supplement would be necessary if little or no animal protein is fed.
  • Antibiotic supplements at the rate of 11 mg of antibiotic per kilogram of the ration.
  • Mineral supplements should be provided.

Read also – एक बीघा जमीन सिर्फ एक गाय और एक नीम

The following table gives specifically the various requirements in the formation of creep, grower and finisher rations for pigs.

Nutrients Creep feed (Up to weaning) Grower ration (20-40 kg) Finisher ration (40-90 kg) Protein supplement (%)
Oilcakes – 16-18, 13-14
Animal protein 8-10 4 2
Grains (Maize, sorghum, millets or combination of grains) (%) 60-65 50-55 40-50
Wheat bran or rice bran (%) 5 10 20
Lucerne meal (%) if available — 5-8 —
Mineral mixture(%) 0.5 0.5 0.5
Antibiotic supplement (mg) 40 20 10
The composition of the concentrate feed for various age groups pigs
Ingredients Creep feed (14th to 56th day Grower ration (up to 40 kg) Finisher ration(40-90 k.g) Pregnant and  nursing sows
Maize or sorghum or broken wheat, broken rice and barley in convenient combinations 65 50 50 50
Oil cakes (groundnut oil cake, soya bean oil-cake, sesame oil cake, linseed oilcake 14 18 20 20
Molasses 5 5 5 5
Wheat bran or rice bran 10 1.5 25 18
Fishmeal or meat meal or cooked offal, skim milk powder dairy wastes 5 5 3 5
Mineral mixture 1 1.5 1.5 1.5
Salt — 0.5 0.5 0.5

The most convenient way to feed animals on a farm is to prepare the complete ration recommended for different classes and give the pigs the amount they will eat without waste two or three times daily. The following is the approximate amount of dry feed the pigs will consume.

 Weight of pig (kg) Daily consumption

of feed (kg) per pig













All grains in mixed feeds should be ground. Generally feeding in the form of the wet mash is not superior to (Slop feeding) dry feeding. Slop feeding requires more time and excessive labor. If a ration is fairly high in fiber, pelleting the feed may increase the rate and efficiency of gain in weight. Pelleting may also decrease the amount of feed that is wasted.

It is important not to overfeed sows which have been bred. Overfat, sows are apt to produce weak pigs and crush more piglets at farrowing. Sows should gain about 35 kg and gilts about 55 kg from breeding to farrowing.

Read also – भेड़ पालन – ऊन एवं नमदा उद्योग एक लाभदायक व्यवसाय

Some common diseases of pigs:-

S.No.Name of diseaseCause SymptomsPrevention & Treatment
1.Hog cholera(swine fever) Virus Fever,

loss of appetite dullness,

body temp.

1060F, and later it falls below normal. Anti-HC-Vaccine, No effective treatment.
2.Swine paratyphoid Salmonella choleraesuis bacteria fever purple spots on the skin,diarrhea. Same as swine
3.Swine dysentery (colitis) Haemorrhagicenteritis, swine typhus bacteria Bloody diarrhea temp.103-1040F, off the
Sanitation, use of sulfamezathine or streptomycin.
4.Swine pox Virus Fever, lack of appetiteeruption on the skin, ear and thighs.Segregation and sanitation.
5.Swine plague (H.S) Pasteurella suiseptica bacteria High feverloss of appetite, difficult respiration, swelling of the throat, dysenterySegregation, inj.of ‘Dexona’
6.Foot and mouth disease Virus High feversecretion and alterations on mucous membrane of the mouth, Foot lesions are painful, hard to walk.Isolation, wash foot and mouth with a KMno4 solution, no effective treatment.
7.Swine influenza Homophilus influenza suis High feverloss of appetite, cough, and discharge from eyes and
nose, difficult movement.
Provide dry, clean and warm atmosphere to the affected pig

Read also – पशुओं में त्वचा रोग एवं उनकी रोकथाम

Precautions for disease control:-

  • Segregation.
  • Erection of physical barriers  50 meters around pig end of sure to keep off visitors, cars, advisors equipment and surgeons, farm attendants etc.
  • Discouraging casual callers, visitors, use of protective clothing, disinfecting feet and hands.
  • Check the quality feed and water, ensure feed is steam pelleted and is packed in paper sacks.
  • Liming of pasture and keeping it parasite free.
  • Rotation of pastures.
  • Proper sanitation in the house (dry floor, well ventilated and with good lighting arrangement).
  • Proper disposal of infected litter and carcass.
  • Quarantine.
  • Vaccination of healthy animals.
  • Timely visit and treatment.
  • A periodical spray of insecticides in houses.
  • Providing balanced ration with low in fiber but with more succulent.
  • Provide facility of medicated wallow.
  • Keeping proper records for conception rates, farrowing index, number born, numbers weaned and reared, mortality, etc. to identify.

Read also – पशु खरीद के समय ध्यान देने योग्य बातें

Economics of swine production:-

Pigs are considered efficient converters of feed into meat. They grow fast and five sows and one boar can produce 80 to 100 young ones in a year that can be sold when they have around 65 kg weight. The dressing percentage in pigs is 65 to 70%.

To work out the economics of pig farm is essential for efficient production and for getting a maximum margin of profit. Following factors affect the economy of pig farming: –

  • Marketing facilities.
  • Live birth and growth rate.
  • Expenditure on feed, water, labor etc.
  • Choice of the breed.
  • Diseases and mortality.

For minimizing the cost of Pig Farming production few points must be taken into consideration:-

  • There will be a good for getting maximum profit.
  • Reduce recurring expenditure to the maximum extent.
  • Regular marketing should be available.
  • Maximum utilization of locally available feeds and other materials.
  • Recycling of feed and finance.

Read also – दुधारू पशुओं को परजीवियों से कैसे बचाएं

Economics of pig farming – At a glance

  1. Unit size 10 Sows with 1 Boar.
  2. The system of rearing Semi-intensive system.
  3. State-Any states of India.
  4. Unit cost (Rs.) 186,680.
  5. Bank loan (Rs.) 158860.
  6. Margin money (Rs.) 28029.
  7. Repayment period (years) 5 with one year grace period.
  8. Interest rate(%) 12.
  9. BCR at 15% DF 1.54:1.
  10. NPW at 15 % DF (Rs.) 197796.
  11. IRR (%) 68.

Economics of pig farming – Investment cost (10 Sows + 1 Boar):-


Particulars Specifications Physical UnitsUnit cost (Rs./ unit)

Total cost


1.Sheds and other structures


Farrowing pens (4) for lactating

Sow 100 sft

per 400 sft


B.Boar cum service pen 70 sft.per boar 70 sft


C.Dry sow pens(6) 20 sftper fattener 120 sft


D.Fattener shed-I 10 sftper fattener 200 sft


E.Fattener shed -II 15 sftper fattener 300 sft


F.Store room   100 sft120





Water supply system (Bore well, electric motor pump set – 1HP,

water tank Lumpsum


3.Cost of equipment Lumpsum


4.Cost of breeding stock
A.Cost of sows10 X 1800


B.Cost of boar1 X 2500



Capitalisation of recurring expenses for first one year

A.Breeder feed cost 3 kg per boar 3.5 kg per sow 70% kitchen garbage 30% conc.feed 12208 kg
8545.25 kg 3662.25 kg 0.75 6 6409


B.Weaner feed cost 0.2 kg per piglet/day1080 kg


C.Ist batch of fattener feed cost 1.5 kg per fattener/day 70% kitchen garbage
30% conc.
feed 1890 kg 810 kg  0.75 6 1418


D.Insurance cost 6% of breeding stock cost


E.labor wages1  1250


F.Cost of medicines etc. for breeder stock for weaners/fatteners   117 animal Month3  585


G.Misc. expenses for breeder stock
for weaners/fatteners   117 animal months 240 animal months 5
3  585


Total financial out lay (TFO)


Margin money @ 15% of TFO                                                         say


Bank loan @ 85% of TFO                                                               say 


Read also – गर्मियों में पशुओं का समुचित देखभाल एवं रखरखाव


1.No. of sows (6-7 months old) 10
2.No. of boars 1
3.No. of batches 2
4.Interval between two batches (months) 3
5.No. of farrowings per year 2
6.No. of piglets per sow per farrowing 11
7.Mortality among piglets (weaners) 20%
8.Mortality among fatteners 10%
9.Mortality among adults is not considered as insurance cover is available
10.Weaning period (months) 2
11.Space requirement (s.ft.)
Fattener of 3-5 months age 10
Fattener of 6-8 months age 15
12.Store room (s.ft.) 100
13.Supplementary feed requirement (kg./day)
Boar 3, Sow 3.5, Weaner 0.2
Fattener (3-5 months age) 1.5
Fattener (6-8 months age) 2
14.Concentrate feed % to total feed 30
15.Kitchen garbage % to total feed 70
16.Cost of construction of sheds (Rs./s.ft.) 75
17.Cost of construction of store room (Rs./s.ft.) 125
18.Cost of a boar (Rs.) 2500
19.Cost of a sow (Rs.) 1800
20.Cost of weaner feed (Rs./kg) 7
21.Cost of concentrate feed (Rs./kg) 6
22.Cost of kitchen garbage (Rs./kg) 0.75
23.Insurance (%) 6
24.Cost of medicines and vaccines
Weaner/fattener (Rs./month) 3
Adults (Rs./month) 5
25.25 Cost of power, water, other misc. expenses
Weaner/fattener (Rs./month) 3
Adults (Rs./month) 5
26.No. of laborers required 1
27.Laborer wages (Rs. per month) 1250

No of piglets sold per sow per farrowing

(2 months old) 4
29.No. of fatteners sold per sow per farrowing
(8 months old) 4
30.Sale price of the piglet (Rs./piglet) 600
31.Avg. wt. of fattener (kg.) 80
32.Sale price of fattener (Rs./fattener) 1700
33.Income from manure

Weaner/fattener (Rs./month) 2

Adults (Rs./month) 5
34.No. of gunny bags per ton of feed 13.3
35.Income from gunny bags (Rs./bag) 6
36.Depreciation on sheds (%) 5
37.Depreciation on equipment etc.(%) 10
38.Margin money (%) 15
39.Interest rate (%) 12
40.Repayment period (years) 5
41.Grace period (years) 1

Read also – साइलेज’ हरे चारे की चिंता से मुक्ति

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Pig Farming




Post no-630  Dt-05/04/2018

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