agriculture पशुपालन

Mastitis in Dairy Cattle and Line of Treatment

Written by bheru lal gaderi

Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland and udder tissue and is a major endemic disease of dairy cattle. It usually occurs as an immune response to the bacterial invasion of the teat canal by the variety of bacterial sources present on the farm, and can also occur as a result of chemical, mechanical, or thermal injury to the cow’s udder.

Mastitis

Image Credit – tsln.com

Milk-secreting tissues and various ducts throughout the udder can be damaged by bacterial toxins, and sometimes permanent damage to the udder occurs. Severe acute cases can be fatal, but even in cows that recover there may be consequences for the rest of the lactation and subsequent lactations. (Source- AHDB Dairy)

Read also – Access Feeding of Calcium and Hypercalcemia in Dairy

1.Per Acute mastitis:-

Symptoms develop within 8 to 12 hours. Often follows after calving.

High fever (103 to 105oF), hurried respirations.

  1. Don’t eat fodder and may not drink water.
  2. Severe drop in the milk yield, the animal can go dry.
  3. The animal is quite weak, may lie down.
  4. Affected quarter swollen, quite hot, painful and very hard.
  5. Milk is watery sometimes blood tinged.
  6. Pupil of the eye dilated, sunken eyes may show severe diarrhea.
  7. Feet and ears can become cold; the animal may die between 12 to 24 hours.

Acute Mastitis:-

Within a day Mastitic udder becomes quite red

  1. High fever (103 to 105oF), shivers, hurried respirations.
  2. Don’t eat fodder and may not drink water.
  3. Severe drop in the milk yield, the animal may go dry.
  4. An animal is quite weak.
  5. Affected quarter swelled, quite hot, painful and hard.
  6. In the beginning, milk is watery, turns to yellow, scum forms, and may have pus.

Read also – Alternative Treatment of Viral Diseases of Livestock

Clinical mastitis:-

Fever (103 to 104oF), may be noticed or not.

  1. Eats less fodder, but drinks water.
  2. Drop in the milk yield.
  3. The animal is apparently healthy.
  4. Affected quarter apparently normal.
  5. First strips of milk with flaky particles, watery sometimes blood tinged.

Chronic Mastitis:-

Repeated attacks. No fever.

  1. Animal will be eating and drinking water.
  2. Gradual drop in the milk yield.
  3. Udder looses normal softness and becomes hard
  4. Milk can curdle, or sticky or has pus.

Sub-clinical Mastitis:-

No symptoms. 15 to 40 cases for every clinical case. Milk appears normal. The only change is the detection of pathogenic agent in analysis and increased somatic cell count. Mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
a. No fever.

  1. The animal will be eating and drinking water.
  2. The gradual drop in the milk yield.
  3. Udder doesn’t any swelling may lose normal softness of udder.
  4. Milk normal for physical appearance but curdles after boiling or milk clots appear.
  5. Teat pores may show plain or raised callus.
  6. Mastect or Maastrip test paper can be used, electrical conductivity increases.
  7. SSC over 2 lakhs/ml. 35 to 40% of milking animals do suffer from this.

Read also – Techniques & Procedure of Post-Mortem(PM) Examination of Animals

Gangrene Mastitis:-

Just before calving or soon after it can appear. Can affect 1 or more quarters. Appears in certain months of the year. Caused by Bovine Herpes virus II. Affected quarter is blue and cold to the touch. Progressive discoloration from the tip to the top. Necrotic parts drop off. Cow often dies.

  1. No fever.
  2. Animal will be eating and drinking water.
  3. Gradual or sudden drop in the milk yield.
  4. Milk emits bad smell Coli forms and Streptococcus bacteria causes the disease.
  5. In early stages udder may be warm, handling the teats the skin can peel off and causes pain.

Fungal Mastitis:-

No swelling.

Milk appears yellow and curdled or watery.

Haemogalectia: (Still not considered as Mastitis):-

Caused by Bovine Herpes Virus II.

  1. May affect one or more quarters.
  2. Udder normal, no swelling is seen.
  3. Milk is blood tinged or blood clots may appear in the milk.

Contagious: Mastitis:-

caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae, of which other infected cows are the main source.

Read also – Roll of CBC (Blood Test) in Animal Diseases Diagnostic

Mastitis caused by bacteria:-

such as Coli forms, of which the main source is manure, as a contaminant

Treatment:-

Per Acute Mastitis:-

Treatment: If Initiated within 4 hours after the onset and complete treatment for 3 days if is done there is a good chance of total recovery.

  1. Milk out the contents. Check the pH of the milk. Wipe the teat pore with an antiseptic. With a sterilized syringe inject normal saline into the affected quarter. Lift the rudder up by holding a cloth or gunny underneath the udder and massage the quarter/s. Inject 10 to 20 i.u. of oxytocin intramuscularly and animal lets down the milk, drain out the contents. Sterilize the teat pore with an antigen septic swab.
  2. If the pH of the milk is alkaline orally administer sodium citrate 30mg/kg body wt in 250ml of water. {Mammidium – Intas; MastiGard feed cake – Neo Spark; etc,}.
  3. Antibiotics have to injected intra mammary in water or an emollient and sterilize the teat pore with antiseptic swab and massage the udder.
  4. Parentally inject antibiotics, antihistamines and liver stimulants.
  5. Few liters of 5% DNS is advised by intravenous injection. Never inject just glucose as it can cause hypoglycemia.
  6. This intravenous fluid therapy has to be continued for 24 hours through ear vein.
  7. Intramammary and parentally betamethazone or dexamethazone or triampicilan injections are advised. Few animals may abort, if the animal is pregnant above 6 months age there is the possibility of retension of foetal membranes.
  8. To control temperature and pain Novalgin/Esgepyrin/Diclofenac sodium/Melaxicam is advised. Few veterinarians have noticed haemogalectia after Diclofenac sodium injections. Read information on haemogalectia.
  9. Above treatments have to be done once in 12 hours for 3 days.
  10. Injecting immunoglobulins intramammary increases resistance of the udder tissue.
  11. External application of ice cubes or Mammital ointment or ethno veterinary practice like 60 ml of aloes vera sap, 10 to 15 ml of lemon juice, 25 grams of slaked lime and 10 grams of turmeric powder is mixed and application is advised. This has to be done every hourly minimum 10 hours in a day.
  12. In acute mastitis cases, homoeo drugs- Mother tincture Echinacea and Apis mellifica of CM potency each 15 to 20 drops-are being used orally 3 to 4 times on the 1st day and on subsequent days 3 times a day.
  13. Few other homoeo drugs that are used in acute mastitis are Belladonna 200, Phytolacca 200, Pyrogenium 1M, Gunpowder 6, and if the animal is in a lateral recumbence Conium 30 is also used each 10 pills QID or TID for desired number of days.
  14. Resque remedy (Impatiens, Clematis, Rock rose, Cherry plum, Star of Bethlehem) and Crab apple each flower remedy 2-3 drops in 10 ml of water 4 times a day give good relief.
  15. To increase the immune resistance, feed ground and boiled germinated horse-gram (salt or jagarry is added while boiling). Vitamin C and Levamisole injections are of some help. Homoeo Mother Tincture Withania somnifera (Aswagandha) can be used as an immune modulator.

Read also – पशुओं में बांझपन – कारण और उपचार एवं प्रजनन विकार

Acute Mastitis:-

Same treatment as in per acute mastitis can be adopted. If the milk has curdled and dark yellow in colour homoeo drug Kali bichromicum 30 has to be used 3 times a day.

Sub acute mastitis:-

Treatment:-

  1. Milk out the contents. Check the pH of the milk. Wipe the teat pore with an antiseptic. With a sterilized syringe inject normal saline into the affected quarter. Lift the udder up by holding a cloth or gunny underneath the udder and massage the quarter/s. Inject 10 to 20 i.u. of oxytocin intra muscularly and animal lets down the milk, drain out the contents. Sterilize the teat pore with an antiseptic swab.
  2. If the pH of the milk is alkaline orally administer sodium citrate 30mg/kg body wt in 250ml of water. {Mammidium – Intas; MastiGard feed cake – Neo Spark; etc,}.
  3. Antibiotics have to injected intra mammary in water or an emollient and sterilize the teat pore with the antiseptic swab and massage the udder.
  4. Parentally inject antibiotics, antihistamines and liver stimulants.
  5. 5% DNS is advised by intravenous injection. Never inject just glucose as it can cause hypoglycemia.
  6. To control temperature and pain Novalgin/Esgepyrin/Diclofenac sodium/Melaxicam is advised. Few veterinarians have noticed haemogalectia after Diclofenac sodium injections. Read information on haemogalectia.
  7. Above treatments have to be done for 3 days.
  8. External application of ice cubes or Mammital ointment or ethno veterinary practice like 60 ml of aloes vera sap, 10 to 15 ml of lemon juice, 25 grams of slaked lime and 10 grams of turmeric powder is mixed and application is advised. This has to be done every hourly minimum 10 hours in a day.
  9. These homoeo drugs can be used Echinacea Apis mellifica of CM, Belladonna 200, Phytolacca 200, Pyrogenium 1M, Gunpowder 6, each 10 pills QID or TID for the desired number of days.
  10. Rescue Remedy (Impatiens, Clematis, Rock rose, Cherry plum, Star of Bethlehem) and Crab apple each flower remedy 10 drops in 10 ml of water 4 times a day give good relief.
  11. To increase the immune resistance, feed ground and boiled germinated horse-gram (salt or jagarry is added while boiling). Vitamin C and Levamisole injections are of some help. Homoeo Mother Tincture Withania somnifera (Aswagandha) can be used as an immune modulator.

Read also – Blood Protozoan Diseases of Ruminants

Chronic mastitis:-

Treatment:-

  1. Milk out the contents. Check the pH of the milk. Wipe the teat pore with an antiseptic. With a sterilized syringe inject normal saline in to the affected quarter. Lift the udder up by holding a cloth or gunny underneath the udder and massage the quarter/s. Inject 10 to 20 i.u. of oxytocin intra muscularly and animal lets down the milk, drain out the contents. Sterilize the teat pore with an antiseptic swab.
  2. If the pH of the milk is alkaline orally administer sodium citrate 30mg/kg body wt in 250mlof water. {Mammidium – Intas; MastiGard feed cake – Neo Spark; etc,}.
  3. Antibiotics have to injected intra mammary in water or an emollient and sterilize the teat pore with the antiseptic swab and massage the udder.
  4. Parentally inject antibiotics, antihistamines and liver stimulants.
  5. Above treatments have to be done for 3 days.
  6. . These homoeo drugs can be used Echinacea 200, Phytolacca 200, Pyrogenium 1M, Gunpowder 6, Sulphur 30, Carbo veg 30, Silicia 30, Aurum Muriaticum Natro Natum 30 and Thiosinaminum 6 each 10 pills QID or TID for the desired number of days.
  7. To increase the immune resistance, feed ground and boiled germinated horse-gram (salt or jagarry is added while boiling). Vitamin C and Levamisole injections are of some help. Homoeo Mother Tincture Withania somnifera (Aswagandha) can be used as the immune modulator.
  8. For very hard udders tripsin, streptokinase, and streptodartase enzymes can be injected into the udder.
  9. In one report 0.5 ml of Sulphur CM homoeo drug mixed in distilled water was injected subcutaneously.
  10. Hard udder can be rubbed twice with pig fat 250gms mixed with one small bottle of Iodex can soften the udder in next lactation more milk can be obtained provided there were few ml milk were coming before this treatment.

Read also – पशुओं में उग्र उपच (आफरा) कारण एवं उपचार

Subclinical mastitis:-

Treatment:-

  1. Each animal’s milk from each quarter has to be tested once in fifteen days. Animals which had mastitis in earlier lactations or in this lactation has to be tested once in a week. In case of doubt, the milk has to be tested every alternate day.
  2. Sodium citrate is orally administered at the rate of 30 mg/kg for one day.
  3. Intramammary administration of antibiotics infusions for 3 to 5 days advised.
  4. Pulsatilla 200 has been used. (Not advised if AI was done in the last 75 days can cause Early embryonic death).

Gangrene mastitis:-

Treatment:-

1. The affected part of the udder is removed surgically and properly dressed.

Fungal mastitis:-

Treatment:-

1. Ampicillin plus Grisiophilivin has to be injected intramammarily.

Read also – जुनोसिस: पशुओं से मनुष्य में होने वाला संक्रामक रोग कारण एवं बचाव

Haemogalactia:-

Treatment:-

  1. Antibiotics plus Stradlin like drugs is infused into the udder.
  2. Drugs like Revici containing n-butanol (10ml) is injected intramuscularly.
  3. Homoeo drugs like Hamamelis 200 and Bufo 200 each 10 pills TID is used in the first 2 weeks of calving. After teat period Hamamelis 200, Arnica 6 and Ipecac6 each 10 pills t.i.d. are used.

COMPILED AND SHARED BY:-

Mastitis

DR. Rajesh kumar SINGH,

JAMSHEDPUR,

Jharkhand,

India.

Mob- 9431309542,

Email- rajeshsinghvet@gmail.com

Post no 664 dt 10th may 2018

Facebook Comments

About the author

bheru lal gaderi

Hello! My name is Bheru Lal Gaderi, a full time internet marketer and blogger from Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India. Shouttermouth is my Blog here I write about Tips and Tricks,Making Money Online – SEO – Blogging and much more. Do check it out! Thanks.