agriculture पशुपालन

Goat Farming Concept of Zero Grazing Stall Feed

Goat farming
Written by bheru lal gaderi

Goat Farming a Profitable Business in India

Goat farming business in India would be a great choice if it is done in the precise and planned way. There are many people out there who want to be an entrepreneur in this field and they want to start profitable business in goat farming in India but due to lack of knowledge, experience, and profitable goat farming business plan they could not make the better outcome as it could be if it is done in a systematic way in India.

Goat farming

Image Credit – TOMAR GOAT Farm

I receive lots of emails from Indians living abroad on how to set up a goat farm back home here in India. This is the reason I have written this article with the latest information.

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Why Goat Farming

Goat is a multifunctional animal and plays a significant role in the economy and nutrition of landless, small and marginal farmers in the country. Goat rearing is an enterprise which has been practiced by a large section of the population in rural areas. Goats can efficiently survive on available shrubs and trees in an adverse harsh environment in low fertility lands where no other crop can be grown.


In pastoral and agricultural subsistence societies in India, goats are kept as a source of additional income and as an insurance against disaster. Goats are also used in ceremonial feastings and for the payment of social dues.
In addition to this, the goat has religious and ritualistic importance in many societies.

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The advantages of goat rearing are:-

  1. The initial investment needed for Goat farming is low.
  2.  Due to small body size and docile nature, housing requirements and manage mental problems with goats are less.
    Goats are friendly animals and enjoy being with the people.
  3. Goats are prolific breeders and achieve sexual maturity at the age of 10-12 months gestation period in goats is short and at the age of 16-17 months, it starts giving milk. Twinning is very common and triplets and quadruplets are rare.
  4. In drought-prone areas risk of goat farming is very much less as compared to other livestock species.
  5. Unlike large animals, in commercial farm conditions, both male and female goats have equal value.
  6. Goats are ideal for mixed species grazing. The animal can thrive well on wide variety of thorny bushes, weeds, crop residues, agricultural by-products unsuitable for human consumption.
  7. Under proper management, goats can improve and maintain grazing land and reduce bush encroachment (biological control) without causing harm to the environment.
  8. No religious taboo against goat slaughter and meat consumption prevalent in the country.
  9. Slaughter and dressing operation and meat disposal can be carried without many environmental problems.
  10. The goat meat is leaner (low cholesterol) and relatively good for people who prefer low energy diet especially in summer and sometimes goat meat (chevon) is preferred over mutton because of its “chewability”.
  11. Goat milk is easy to digest than cow milk because of small fat globules and is naturally homogenized. Goat milk is said to play a role in improving appetite and digestive efficiency. The goat milk is nonallergic as compared to cow milk and it has anti-fungal and antibacterial properties and can be used for treating urogenital diseases of fungal origin.
  12. Goats are 2.5 times more economical than sheep on free range grazing under semi-arid conditions.
  13. Goat creates employment to the rural poor besides effectively utilizing unpaid family labor. There is ample scope for establishing cottage industries based on goat meat and milk products and value addition to skin and fiber.
  14. Goat is termed as walking refrigerator for the storage of milk and can be milked a number of times in a day.
  15. Indian economy is growing at a great speed and the demand for food is increasing exponentially. Goat meat that used to be a luxury for most of the population is becoming affordable to a larger number of people due to economic growth. This has caused an increase in demand for mutton in India and not enough supply to meet the demand.
  16. This demand cannot be met by the traditional method of small-scale backyard goat rearing in villages.
  17. As the demand far exceeds supply, goat meat prices have been increasing steadily. This increased price has created a need and opportunity for a large scale organized and scientific method of goat rearing in controlled conditions (Stall-Fed method). Improvement in the quality of the breeds is a critical factor for commercial success.
  18. All the above factors have created a tremendous opportunity for entrepreneurs to take a lead and be pioneers in goat breeding business. There is huge potential for commercial success for those that follow advanced farming methods.

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In short, The advantages of Goat Farming Business compared to other Agri related Business were,

  1. Confirmed ever increasing the Market price.This is the only agribusiness in which the producers fix the price for their products.
  2. Very low electricity dependency.
  3. Low labor requirement.
  4. High job satisfaction.

The breed options available in India are Boer, Thalacherry, Jamnapari (Jamunapari), Kanni, Kodi, Salem Black, Sirohi, Badmasari, Beetal, Karowli (Karoli), Sojat, Ajmeri, Osmanabadi (Usmanabadi), Jakhrana, Kohilawadi, Barbari, Bengal Black, Surti and many more.

If anyone plans to do a Goat farm project in a controlled and professional manner, the Stall-fed method is the most practical and best method to follow.

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Stall Feed method

The increased price has created a need and opportunity for a large scale organized and scientific method of goat rearing in controlled conditions (Stall-Fed method) in India. Till now this enterprises was in the hand of poorest of the poor, remote rural family of India who is either illiterate or very less educated but this new concept of STALL FED goat farming has attracted my entrepreneur to invest in this business.

  • Goats are not allowed to graze on the outside. They are kept in a Shed (Ground level or Elevated Slotted level) separately depending upon the sex, Breed, Age, and Weight.
  • Bucks (male goats) and Does (female goats) are kept in Separate rooms and allowed to mate at the desired time with desired Bucks.
  • Quantity and Quality of Feed can be differentiated according to the Stage and Nutritional Requirement of different age groups of goats.
  • Wastage of energy during grazing is avoided.
  • Disease transmission is prevented from outside animals and outside plants.
  • StaThe stall-method is highly intensive and there is a need for parent stock that,
  • Respond to the increased nutrition.
  • Have high feed conversion ratio.
  • Twins and triples kidding character.
  • Adaptability to stall-fed conditions.
  • Higher milk yield for the kids.
  • Higher weight gain, etc.

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Intensive stall-fed system for rearing goats

Indoor housing is a convenient practice for raising livestock. If stalls are constructed in an appropriate way, they can fulfill several functions. By avoiding wastage of feed, they allow the keepers to have an enhanced fodder use efficiency.

In addition, goat droppings can be collected underneath the shed, enabling easily disposal as manure for crops. This hygienic practice keeps the animals healthy, preventing the excessive application of medicine.

Small-scale farmers and agricultural laborers can easily construct such a wooden stall-fed system. The construction materials are locally available and the stalls can be easily constructed with the help of local carpenters and/or skilled laborers. Construction of such a wooden stall can be completed quickly and at a lower cost compared with the construction of usual pucca shed (solid, permanent houses or huts that are made of concrete, clay tiles and/or stones).
This practice describes the construction of a low-cost housing system for rearing goats in case of shortage of labor and/or non-availability of sufficient grazing area or absence of grazing area.

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Description

Construction of a Goat Shed

  • In case of an existing tree crop garden, a goat shed of about 1.2 meters (4 ft.) above the ground level is constructed under the canopy. For roofing, galvanized corrugated sheet is used.
  • The general dimension of the shed is approximately 30 x 3 meter (100 x 10 ft.). I.e. the shed has 30 meters (100 ft.) length and 3 meters (10 ft.) width and the height of the shed is 3. 6 meters (12 ft.) from the ground level. The pillars support the shed and the floor of the shed is at 1.2 m (4 ft.) height from the ground. the floor of the shed is based are 1.2 m (4 ft.) height.The thickness of the pillars is 15-20 cm.
  • There are ten (10) sections inside the shed, each section with 3 meters (10 ft.) length and 3 meters (10 ft.) width. In each section 10 adult animals are housed.
  • Buck and doe are kept separately so that breeding can be controlled. Kids are kept in separate rooms for feeding them with a special feed/fodder.
  • The floor of the shed is laid out with wooden planks at a gap of 2 cm (3/4 inch) in between the planks. This facilitates smooth descend of the goat droppings and urine onto the soil below the shed. The droppings can be collected at a 6 months interval and used as manure for the cultivation of vegetables and fodder crops.

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Steps of construction

  1. Erect cement, stone or wood pillars of 4 meter (12ft.) height at 3 meters distance along 30 meters of total length. In total, 20 main pillars of 4 meters (12ft.) length are needed.
  2. In between the main pillars, erect shorter pillars of 1.50 meters (5ft.) height. Entrench them at 30 cm (1 foot) depth. The pillars are erected at 150 cm (5 ft.) intervals, in between the main pillars. In total, 37 pillars of 1.5 meters (5 ft.) height are required;
  3. The shed is formed at the height of 1.2 meters (4 ft.) from the ground level, anchored over the (cement) pillars. The shed is constructed with wooden poles roofed with galvanized corrugated sheets. The floor of the shed is laid with wooden planks at a gap of 2 cm spacing between planks. Nails are used for fixing the planks over the wooden poles. Usually, the poles are obtained from casuarinas trees that are prevalent throughout the Indian subcontinent. Both sides of the shed are closed with wire grid to prevent the escape of goats. The shed is divided into sections of 3 x 3 meter by erecting wooden poles and reapers (wooden reapers are manufactured in factories artificially using powdered wooden materials) with provision to let goats out conveniently;

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How to construct the feeding trough

For each room fix separate troughs. For the stall of 30 x 3 meter, this would mean to build 10 troughs, each of which is fixed for the 10 separated 3 x 3-meter sections.The feeding trough dimension is 2.75 meter (9 ft.) length and 0.45 meter (1.5 ft.) width.

  1. Purchase tin sheets of the 4mm thickness of required length and width;
  2. The feeding trough is made up of the galvanized metal sheet of 4mm thickness. At both ends of the trough, semi-circled wooden planks are fixed. The depth of the tough is 15 cm (½ feet). For each room one feeding trough is fixed to facilitate 10 goats to take feed when standing inside the shed;
  3. Bend the tin sheet by placing a wooden plank of 3.6 meters (9 ft.) length and 30cm (1 ft.) width so as to make a frame for the feeding trough. At each end, semi-circular wooden planks of 45 cm (1 ½ ft.) length are fitted as indicated in the picture with an arrow. Nails are used to fixing both wooden planks and the tin sheets together. The trough is then fixed using nails at the same height as the bottom of the wood planks of the floor. The whole installation can be designed easily with the local carpenter by showing and interpreting the pictures;
  4. This structure is easier to clean from the outside without entering the animal shed. It is convenient to deliver feed into the feeders from outside. The through also avoids wastage of feed materials;

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Stall Fed Farming

STALL-FED GOATS can ideally fit into the intensive integrated farming system (IIFS). The small animals are the most efficient converters of farm and crop residues into excellent organic manure. Several farmers have successfully run stall-fed goat farms, and they have found that such an integrated farming venture was more productive and profitable as well.

Goats relish the stalks and residues of most of the nutritious cereals, and they do well particularly when mixed with green fodder such as grasses and subadult. Special goat-feeds can be formulated using farm-grown millets and oil cakes. As the cost of the feed and also the labor gets distributed over other farming operations, the actual cost of raising the goats becomes minimal. The rich goat manure is ideal for fertilizing fishponds and all other crops. It is also a good base material for vermicomposting.

Goat farming needs less capital when compared with dairying, and the animals can be raised on small farms. The floor space requirement per adult animal is about one square meter. Stall-fed goat farming is an ideal occupation for the small, marginal and landless agricultural laborers. A properly fed and managed milky goat will yield at least as much milk (on average two liters per day) as low yielding desi cows. The she-goat will deliver 2-4 kids at each parturition after a short gestation period of 150 days.

A few exotic goats such as-

Saanen, Toggenburg, Angora, Anglo-Nubian, British Alpine, French Alpine have been found to be well adapted to Indian conditions, and they are crossed with superior Indian breeds to get good progeny. The popular Indian breeds are Sirohi, Jamnapari, Surti, Tellicherry, Beetal, Malabari, Barbara, and Gujarati. The milky-type animals are ideal for the integrated farming system.

A small shed with good cross ventilation is enough to keep a small herd. A deep-litter system with paddy husk and groundnut shell as bedding material is ideal for raising goats. The biological activity in the litter keeps the housing warm in winter and cool in summer.

A bedding material will last for about six months, and after that, it will have to be changed.

The bedding has to be turned periodically to remove the foul odor in the pen.

The bedding material collects all the dung and urine efficiently and it is found to be an enriched organic manure. An adult goat will add about a tone of rich manure to the farm every year.

Though the goats are robust animals and are resistant to many diseases, they need to be vaccinated against foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and tetanus regularly. The animals need to be de-wormed at least twice a year to keep in good stead.

Goat farming with stall-feeding can be managed in small yards just like poultry, and it will prove to be an economical and rewarding enterprise for the small, marginal and landless farmers.

Stall-fed goats can ideally fit into the intensive integrated farming system. The small animals are the most efficient converters of farm and crop residues into excellent organic manure. Several farmers have successfully run stall-fed goat and sheep farms, and they have found that such an integrated farming venture was more productive and profitable as well.

Goat farming needs less capital when compared with dairying and the animals can be raised on small farm or land. Stall-fed goat farming is an ideal occupation for the small, marginal and landless agricultural laborers.

A few exotic goats such as Saanen, Toggenburg, Angora, Anglo-Nubian, British Alpine, French Alpine have been found to be well adapted to Indian conditions, and they are crossed with superior Indian breeds to geed progeny. The popular Indian breeds are Sirohi, Sojat, Jamunapari, Surti, Tellicherry, Beetal, Malabari, Barbara etc. The milch-type animals are ideal for the integrated farming system.

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Exercise Paddock For Stall Fed Goats

When goats have reared in-stall fed system it is of utmost importance to provide the exercise paddock. An enclosure measuring 12m x18 m is adequate for 100 to 125 goats. Some shade trees may be planted to provide adequate comfort in summer. The animals should be allowed to roam about in the enclosed area for some fixed period to have sufficient fresh air and exercise

Stall Fed Goat Farming

Construction:-

Roofing:- Using Galvanized Corrugated Roofing sheets, Over MS Truss structure
Partitions:- Using Ms iron Rods and Angle Structures with Epoxy Coating
Flooring:- Slatted Plastic Flooring Installed over FRP support Structures(Non-corrosive) / MS support structures
Feed trays:- Custom Made Plastic Feed trays with PP sheets
Approximate construction cost per Square feet = Rs 400 to 450

Advantages of this method with plastic slatted flooring:-

  1. Long life, up to or more than 10 to 15 years.
  2. Floors and Partitions Can be installed easily by an inter-locking method within few days.
  3. Low maintenance, easily washable.
  4.  Better hygiene avoids fungal skin problems in Goats in Rainy season, unlike wooden floors.
  5. Provides even spacing slats (16 mm) to felicitate easy droppings of dung (In wooden floors after few months the reapers will shrink and bend which allows the “leg stuck” problems in goats and particularly in kids causing fracture of legs).
  6. Extends 4 to 5 times longer life compared with wood without repair work with recycling option even after 15 years usage (as it is manufactured with virgin plastic raw materials).
  7. Heat resistant and waterproof virgin plastic material prevents damage from Sunlight exposure and Wetness.
  8. Anti-skid surface prevents from skidding of goats even in a wet surface.
  9. Available in attractive colors which gives high-tech and Hygienic look to the farm.
  10. Galvanized Corrugated Roofing Sheets Reduces Heat inside the Housing up to 60% over the Asbestos sheet.
  11. MS Iron Partitions prevents Neck struck problems and Breaking of fencing within the Housing Partitions.
  12. Cleaning the Dung and waste can be done once in 3 months only and does not need Daily cleaning.

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Construction:-

Roofing:- Using Asbestos Roofing sheets, Over MS Truss structure
Partitions:- Using Chain link Mesh, supported by M.s Angles, and posts.
Flooring:- Wooden reapers with wooden supports and cement posts.
Feed trays:- Custom Made Feed trays with GI sheets and Ms structures.
Approximate construction cost per Square feet = Rs 300.00

Advantages:-

  1. Costs lesser than Advanced method and thus reduces the initial investment cost.
  2. Flooring Can be done with locally available wood such as Eucalyptus, etc.

Difficulties:-

  1. Wooden floors can wear out and Damaged after 1 or 2 years time, causing uneven gaps between Reapers which can cause Leg stuck problem in Goats which leads to Fracture of legs.
  2. Needs Routine maintenance and replacement of damaged wooden reapers periodically.
  3. Chain link partitions can be damaged by goats and can last only to 1 to 2 years and need replacement.
  4. Asbestos sheets can allow more heat in Summer which can create some stress to goats.
  5. Takes more time and effort for installation.
  6. In Rainy seasons, Fungal skin problems can occur in Goats after lying over wet wooden floors.

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Basic requirements to start a Stall fed goat farm:-

  1. One acre agricultural land for every 20 to 40 goats for cultivating fodder.
  2. Water, Electricity and Labour availability to cultivate fodder throughout the year.
  3. Investment capacity ranging from Rs.6 to 12 lakhs for 50 goat project.
  4. A progressive mindset to adapt to latest scientific methods and technology.
  5. Passion towards the business.

Specifications of Plastic slatted flooring:-

Customized for goats based on demand:-

  • Size:- 2 feet X 1 feet.
  • Interlocking:- Both sides.
  • Gap Between slats: 16 mm.

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The advantage of Plastic Slatted floor over the Conventional wooden Slated floor, were-

  1. Long life, up to or more than 10 years.
  2. Can be installed easily by an inter-locking method within few days.
  3. Low maintenance, easily washable.
  4. Better hygiene, avoids fungal skin problems in Goats in Rainy season, unlike wooden floors.
  5. Provides even spacing slats (16 mm) to felicitate easy droppings of dung (In wooden floors after few months.
  6. the reapers will shrink and bend which allows the “leg stuck” problems in goats and particularly in kids causing fracture of legs).
  7. Although a bit expensive than wooden floors extend to 3 times longer life without repair work.
  8. Can be used in open areas also as it is Heat resistant and waterproof virgin plastic material.
  9. Anti-skid surface prevents from skidding of goats even in a wet surface.
  10. Available in attractive colors which gives high-tech and Hygienic look to the farm.

The cost of constructing a goat shed:-

  • The cost of construction of a goat shed for housing 100 goats is given below:
    Table, showing the costs for constructing a goat shed in India (cost based on rates in 2012 and is subject to changes in prizes).
  • Particulars Amount in Rupiah.
  • 20 cement pillars of 4 m (12 ft.) height; Rs.700/piece 14,000.
  • 36 cement pillars of 1.5 meters (5 ft.) height; Rs.150/piece 5,400.
  • 20 wooden planks for the floor; Rs. 500/piece 10,000.
  • Procuring 60 wooden poles at 12 feet length with 2’’ (5cm) thickness 8,000.
  • 50 galvanized corrugated sheets for the roof (120 cm x 360 cm; 5mm thickness); Rs.800/piece 40,000
    Wire-mesh 2,000.
  • Tin sheet (for the top of the roof) 2,000.
  • Cost of tie wire, Niles & miscellaneous items 3,800.
  • Cost of Labour for construction 40,000

TOTAL = 125,200

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How To Get Loan For Goat Farming in India – Goat Farm Subsidy Schemes NABARD:-

Our lives are becoming easier day-by-day, thanks to the growing technology. People are relying on various businesses to make money. There is no need to worry about when you don’t have enough money to start the business of your choice because there are several banks in the country which are offering loans at reasonable interest rates
You can get a loan from NABARD in any state of India such as Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Delhi, Maharashtra, etc.

Banks offer loans to the people who need start-up money because starting a business needs a lot of seed money which ordinary man cannot afford. This is the reason banks started giving them loans and ask them to repay them in the form of EMI (equated monthly installments) which is an easy way to repay the loan.

People in the country depend upon various businesses and their business depends upon their family background. Some people make money by doing agriculture and some do goat farming and some do cattle farming. All these kinds businesses need a lot of money. It is known fact that this business needs a lot of seed money.

Goat farming is one kind of business which needs huge investment because taking care of all goats can be risky this is the reason proper food should be given to them. Providing quality food to all goats needs a lot of money this is the reason it is good to get a loan from the bank. After taking a loan from banks it would be easy for a person to provide proper shelter to all goats, good food, and good health care.

NABARD (National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development) is a bank which is specialized in helping people who rely on agriculture as the main source of income. This bank was set up by Reserve Bank of India. The main duty of this bank is to uplift rural India by helping agriculturists and rural farm sector.

Loan for goat farming is available from NABARD with refinance facility. It is easy to obtain a loan, farmers should walk to the nearest branch of a commercial or co-operative or regional rural bank in the prescribed application form. This can be obtained from branches of financing bank. A technical officer or manager of the bank helps the loan taker with all guidelines which help the farmer to obtain a loan without any hurdle.

It is mandatory to prepare detailed reports for goat rearing schemes. Items of finance would include costs of assets like Development of land, shed construction, equipment purchase, purchase of breeding stock, cost of goat rearing till it generates income etc. we should remember that the cost of land is not considered for the loan. However, if the land is purchased for setting up a goat farm its cost can be treated as party’s margin as per the norms.

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Several checks take place before sanctioning the loan From NABARD bank below are some following checks banks conducting sanctioning loan.

  • The unit cost of the animal.
  • Costs the incur for feeding, fodder, veterinary aid and insurance etc.
  • The sale price of live goats, manure and penning costs.
  • Income and expenditure statement and annual gross surplus.
  • Analysis of cash inflow.
  • Repayment of loan and the interest rate.
  • Other documents related to security and margin money requirements are examined before the loan gets sanctioned. Even field visit is done by bank officials for a technological feasibility study.
  • After all completion of above processes like feasibility and financial viability loan is sanctioned by the bank. After sanctioning the loan bank keeps constant tracking of loan payments and others.
  • There are private banks which are also offering loan for goat farming in India. It is good and safe to understanding pros and cons before choosing a bank for a loan. Different banks have different rules and conditions; one must understand all these things before applying a loan for goat farming.

Different steps need to be taken before starting a goat farm:-

  1. Selection of land where you are willing to start a goat farm.
  2. Selection of land to start goat farming in India is the very first step you are going to take. There is no any hard and fast rule to stick with the land selection whatever the land you have is good to go or it would be better if you have surplus land at the city outskirt with the greenery and grazing area.
  3. Do the proper fencing of the land with the boundary wall or bamboo fencing but I would suggest for the brick and cemented boundary provide more security to the place or it could be your choice mainly it depends on the surrounding and the security concern of the farm.now you have a good fence i.e the boundary wall with the proper entrance. Now it is the time for a goat shed construction.

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Goat shed Construction plan:-

A properly cleaned, hygienic and spacious shed is required for the better growth of your goats. Depending upon your land area, expenditure and farm strength the shed area may vary. Generally, if u want to have a shed for 100 goats for which u have to have to use 60×18 feet(i.e 60 feet of length and 18 feet in width. )

The dimension of the shed depends on your choice whether it could be less or more as I mentioned but I would suggest giving a try with the smaller strength i.e shed for 100 goats.

In general, it is being suggested that for one goat there must be 10sq ft. The area is needed but this can be less or more mainly it depends on the breed and age of goat whether it is adult or kid.

I assume you have selected your dimension of the shed now its time to build the shed. Use bricks and cement for the shed wall. 12 feet of height must be maintained and a proper ventilation is needed. For the roof area use ba better quality of asbestos which is good heat absorbent in summer.

Create one water reservoir or cemented tank to provide fresh drinking water supply to goats every time. it should be outside of the shed area. Build a bamboo fence outside the shed for proper movement of the goats.
Proper cemented or steel stall is required for the goat feeding it must be inside or outside the shed.

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Shed for 100 goats:-

  1. Shed dimension in my case it is 60×18 feet.
  2. Wall height is 12 feet.
  3. The bamboo fence outside the shed.
  4. The material used for the shed is brick, cement, and asbestos.
  5. Cemented tank for the fresh drinking water for goats (Outside the shed inside the bamboo fence).
  6. Borewell equipped with motor or submersible pump for the fresh drinking water for the goats.
  7. Feeder stall may be cemented or steel Menzer for feeding. Have long cemented feeding stall inside the shed and steel Menzer or feeder for outside feeding.

Goats Breed Selection:-

Goats breed selection is a very important aspect of the goat farm as this is the main asset of your business which is going to give your business a boom and a good uplift. Selection of breed is a very important point in the profitable goat farming business plan. There are different breeds out there which are considered as profitable breed selection basically it depends on the region and climate there are many breeds available but I am covering some of them which are considered profitable for north India region.

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They are categorized into two part.

Pure Breed Selection:-

  1. Sirohi
  2. Jamnapari
  3. Tota Pari
  4. Barbari
  5. Beetel
  6. Black Bengal

CrossBreed Selection:-

  • The crossbreed of Sirohi and black Bengal (Sirohi buck and black Bengal doe).
  • The crossbreed of Jamnapari and Sirohi (Jamnapari buck and Sirohi doe).
  • A crossbreed of black Bengal and beetel. (beetel buck and black Bengal doe).
  • There may be a number of cross breed selection depends upon the breed of Buck and Doe.The rule of thumb in breed selection is the environmental and climatic condition where the breed is best suited for. For example:-
CrossBreed Concept in goats:-Sirohi the goat breed of Sirohi district of Rajasthan is well suited to the Rajasthan hot and dry climatic condition. If you want to raise pure Sirohi breed in a different region of India apart from the Rajasthan the mortality rate increases because of the climatic condition with which they are not adapted to. But what if we want Sirohi breed on my farm.

As in my case, I have Sirohi breed too here comes the CrossBreed Concept. All you need a crossbreed Sirohi i.e take a female mother goat(doe) of your area. for example in Jharkhand climates are very hot in summer and chilled in winter the Black Bengal breed is well adapted to Jharkhand climate. So take black Bengal doe and Sirohi Buck the first cross of the product would be 70% Sirohi or 30% black Bengal (Note: the percentage genetical behavior may vary depends on the mating breed.) Now, this breed would be well adapted to the Jharkhand climate.same apply to the other breeds too.

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Vaccination Schedule:-

Proper Scheduled Vaccination is very important to overcome the mortality rate in goats.
After goat purchase and before entering into the goat farm deworming is compulsory and following vaccine must be scheduled.

The Common vaccine schedule prescribed by vet doctors are:-

  • FMD(Foot and Mouth disease) vaccine name is polyvalent FMD vaccine given once in a year dosage is 3ml. S/C given in February & December.
  • Anthrax vaccine name is anthrax spore vaccine given once in a year dosage is 1 ml.S/C in the month of May -June.
  • ET(Enterotoxemia) vaccine name is ET Vaccine once in a year dosage is 5 ml.S/C in the month of May – June.
  • CCPP(Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia) or IVRI Vaccine dosage is 0.2 ml S/C once in a year.
  • PPR(Peste Des Pettis Ruminants) or PPR Vaccine with a dosage of 1ml S/C given once in a 3 Year.

Fodder Plan for Goats:-

Goat fodder plan is a very important aspect of the goat farming a proper fodder plan and cost management of fodder is required to make a good profit in this goat farming business. Here in this section, I will discuss how to make an effective fodder to boost your goat’s growth in lesser time also I will discuss the different feeding style like complete stall fed system and partial stall fed system.

In addition to the dry fodder, green fodder is very important to provide essential nutrients to the goats. Grazing of goats is very important for this you must have a surplus grazing area with greenery so as for proper movement of the goats which helps in their digestion and enhance metabolism.

Read also – पशु खरीद के समय ध्यान देने योग्य बातें

How to make goat dry fodder?

The composition and Preparation Technique. To make fodder of 100 kg following are the ratio of composition (Note: I am using local regional language to describe the ingredients so as to benefit the regional readers.)

  1. Chokar – 45 kg.
  2. Makai Darra – 25 kg.
  3. Badam Khalli – 15 kg.
  4. Korai (Chana chilka) – 12 kg.
  5. Mineral Mixture – 2 kg.
  6. Salt – 1 kg.
  7. The feed must be mixed with kutti in half ratio and given. For example, if kutti is 1 kg then mix this ½ kg feed. Under the partial stall fed condition hence the almost all nutrients supplied by grazing this concentrate with kutti given twice a day i.e morning and evening 1 ½ kg twice for one goat means 3 kg every day (2 kg kutti and 1 kg concentrate). Apart from this concentrate, green fodder is also very important to provide the goats with green fodder every day or leave them for grazing.

Read also – दुधारू पशुओं को परजीवियों से कैसे बचाएं

Goat Management:-

Package of Common Management Practices Recommended for Goat rearing Modern and well established scientific principles, practices and skills should be used to obtain maximum economic benefits from goat rearing. Some of the recommended practices are given hereunder :

Goats Housing management:-

  1. Construct shed on the dry and properly raised ground.
  2. Avoid water-logging, marshy areas.
  3. In low lying and heavy rainfall areas, the floors should be preferably elevated.
  4. In the temperate Himalayan region, the floor may be made of wood.
  5. The shed should be 10 ft. high and should have good ventilation.
  6. Bucks should be housed in individual pens.
  7. Does can be housed in groups up to 60 per pen.
  8. Provide proper shade and cool drinking water in summer.
  9. Dispose of dung and urine properly.
  10. Give adequate space for the animals.
  11. Avoid overstocking or crowding.

Selection of Goat breeding stock and it’s management:-

  • Animals in good health and having good physical features must be purchased in consultation with Veterinarian/ Bank’s technical officer.
  • Purchase animals which are ready to breed and in prime stage of production.
  • Identify the newly purchased animals by suitable identification mark.
  • Vaccinate the newly purchased animals against the diseases.
  • Keep the newly purchased animals under observation for about 15 days and then mix with the general flock.
  • Unproductive animals should be culled promptly and should be replaced by the newly purchased animals or farm born one.
  • Animals are to be bred at the interval of 8-9 months for maximum productivity.
  • Cull the old animals at the age of 6 years and above.
  • Avoid the kidding during peak periods of summer and winter.

Read also – गर्मियों में पशुओं का समुचित देखभाल एवं रखरखाव

Goat feeding management:-

Ensure Bushes/shrubs for browsing of animals.As an alternative to above, the supply of cultivated fodder from own farm or from surrounding farms may be ensured. Offer roughages adlib.As a thumb rule, 2/3rds of the energy requirements should be met through roughages. Half of the roughages should be leguminous green fodders and rest half should be grasses/tender tree leaves.

In the absence of good quality green fodders, concentrates must be considered to replace them. Kids should be fed colostrums up to 5 days of age. Later on, they can be put on Kid starter rations.

Green leguminous fodders should be offered adlib. to kids from 15 days onwards. Provide salt and water to kids at all times. Additional concentrates should be given to bucks and does during the breeding season. Care should be taken to meet the nutrient requirements as recommended.

Protection Goats against diseases:-

  • Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behavior.
  • Consult the nearest veterinary aid center for help if the illness is suspected.
  • Protect the animals against common diseases.
  • In case of an outbreak of contagious diseases, immediately segregate the sick animals from a healthy one and take necessary disease control measures.
  • Deworm the animals regularly.
  • Examine the faces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs.
  • Provide clean and uncontaminated feed and water for minimizing the health disorders.
  • Strictly follow the recommended vaccine schedule as given in Vaccination Program Section.

Goat Breeding Care:-

  • It should be planned to obtain 3 kidding in 2 years period by adopting optimal management conditions.
  • For every 25 does one buck should be provided in one breeding season.
  • Breed the animals 12 hours after the onset of the first symptoms of heat for maximum conception.
  • Unreadable animals must be examined thoroughly as directed by veterinary doctor for prompt elimination of causes for anoestrus or cull them if necessary.

Read also – ‘साइलेज’ हरे चारे की चिंता से मुक्ति

Care of Goats during pregnancy:-

In the advanced stage of pregnancy, the does must be transferred to either kidding pens or separately earmarked space for kidding within the main shed after thoroughly disinfecting it. After kidding, the does should be provided with warm bran mash for two days.

Care of Kids:-

Almost immediately after birth, the kids, if healthy and strong, are on their legs and make attempts for their mother’s teats. Failure to reach the teats, however, is of no consequence, because the kids do not require nourishment for several hours after birth. If more than one kids are born, it may be necessary especially when they are very young, to ensure that the smallest of them gets its due share of milk, because it may be prevented from doing so by the stronger kids.

In case the udder is too full, a proportion of the milk should be drawn from as otherwise, the weight of the udder will cause discomfort to the animals. As soon as there is teats should be held by the hand and pressed into their mouths. Once they have drawn a little of the milk, it will not be long before they take to the normal methods of suckling.

Generally-
male kids are heavier than the female kids. At birth, a male kid of the Beetle breed will weight about 3 kg. and a female kid about 2-3 kg. For the first three or four days after kidding, goat’s milk like cows milk is considered unsuitable for human consumption. This milk, the so-called colostrums, is yellowish in appearance and is viscous’ it coagulates on boiling. It is nature’s first provision of food for the newborn and it must be given to the kids whether they are to be reared on the goat or artificially. Colostrums acts as a laxative and, because of its large contents of vitamin A and serum globulin, it confers immunity against certain diseases.

When about two weeks old, kids begin to nibble green food or dry fodder, and it would be well to see that small quantity of these are within their easy reach at this time. It is also important that kids are allowed plenty of open air and sunlight. In the hot weather, this can best be done by keeping them in an enclosure built around a tree so that they may also be provided with shade. The enclosure should be large enough to allow them plenty of exercises.

At the age of 2 to 3 months, the suckling may be practically discontinued and at four months the kids should be completely weaned because by this time they will become fit like the older goats to eat solid food, although they may as well be allowed to suckle a little longer.

Male kids, unless they are required for breeding purposes, should be castrated at the age of 2 to 3 months for it has been proved that castration improved the quality of meat. Otherwise, they should be kept separated from the female kids.

The rearing of kids may be either natural or by hand rearing and each has its advantages and disadvantages. In India, it is the natural method that is usually practiced and this consists of in leaving the kid to take what amount of milk it can obtain from its mother. Hand-rearing is resorted to when weaning is practiced or when the goat dies. There are two methods of hand rearing’ one consists of feeding the kid with a bottle and the other is feeding it off the pail. Both methods are learned by them easily, but bottle feeding is to be preferred because the saliva that is produced during the process of suckling the milk aids digestion. Kids will also readily take to feeding on a foster mother when they are put on her teats.

Read also – अमरूद की सघन एवं मीडो बागवानी पद्धति

Male kids for breeding should be fed and handled in much the same way as doe kids, –

except for the fact that they require a little more milk as well as gram ration than the female kids on account of the larger size they have to attain. Kids with body size below normal should be discarded, as they seldom prove good breeders when mature.

They should be fed well at all ages to keep them in good condition, but excessive feeding should be avoided, particularly when they are old because, if fat, they become sluggish and are slow breeders. Where the animal is unduly fat, its grain ration should be cut. At one year, a buck should receive 1.8 kg of grain mixture the allowance is increased by 50 percent during the breeding season. A liberal amount of fodder should be given. An average of 7 to 8 kg. of green fodder per day should be adequate for a full grown Jamunapari buck when entirely stall fed.

  • Take care of newborn kids by providing guardrails.
  • Treat/disinfect the navel cord with tincture of iodine as soon as it is cut with a sharp knife.
  • Protect the kids from extreme weather conditions, particularly during the first two months.
  • Dehorn the kids during first two weeks of age.
  • Male kids should be castrated for better quality meat production.
  • Vaccinate the kids as per the recommended schedule.
  • Wean the kids at the age of 8 weeks.
  • Proper selection of kids on the basis of initial body weight and weaning weight should be initiated by maintaining appropriate records for replacing the culled adult stock as breeders.
  • Additional feed requirements of lactating must be ensured for proper nursing of all the piglets born.

Read also – भारतीय गाय की प्रमुख नस्ले एवं विवरण

Marketing:-

The marketable product of goat farming includes the fattened kids, manure, culled animals. Marketing avenues for the above products are slaughterhouses and individual meat consuming customers and agriculture farms. Therefore the availability of either slaughtering facilities or traders who will purchase live animals should be ensured to convert the fasteners into the wholesome meat and meat products. Further, demand for manure from nearby agriculture farms must also be ensured.

  1. Routine Operations—–
  2. Handling of Goats——

Goats are seldom difficult to handle and frequently learn to come for food and milking when called. They dislike being held by horns and ears and care should be taken not to disturb the nostrils. For an ideal handling, it is preferable to hold them with neck or head collars.

Castration The Bucks:-

It is done at the age of 2 to 4 weeks although castration at a later stage is successful. For this method, the Burdizzo’s castrator is used. Care should be taken to pass the spermatic chord of each testis in two places, half apart. At that time testis should be held by hand in such a way that it never reaches near the hinge of the castrator. After castration, there may be swelling of the testis which soon becomes normal within 2 or 3 days.

Advantages of Castration

  1. The palatability of the meat increases.
  2. The body weight increases at a rapid rate.
  3. The quality of the skin becomes superior.
  4. The profit from such castrated goat is always more.

Read also – सूक्ष्मजीव से कीटों एवं रोगों का नियंत्रण

Dehorning The Goats:-

Dehorning is done to avoid keeping horned and polled goats together. It is practiced within one week of birth by using caustic potash.

Care of the Goat Feet:-

Goats frequently suffer from overgrown feet, a condition which causes much unnecessary discomfort and even deformity and arthritis old age. These conditions can be prevented by pairing the hooves when they become overgrown.

Marking Goats:-

Three means for marking goats are ear-tattooing, ear-tagging and ear-notching which should be carried out within one week after kidding.

Read also – रजनीगंधा की उन्नत खेती एवं उत्पादन तकनीक

Compiled & shared by-

Goat farming

Dr. – RAJESH KUMAR SINGH,

JAMSHEDPUR,

JHARKHAND

Mob.- 9431309542,

Email- rajeshsinghvet@gmail.com

Post no-628 Dt-04/04/2018

Read also – गेहूं कटाई हेतु विभिन्न मशीनों के बारे में जानकारी

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