Designer Eggs (food) refers to the food that is designed to have some health benefits other than its traditional nutritional value. ‘Designer food’, ‘functional food’ and ‘fortified food’ are the synonym, which refers to the food fortified or enriched with nutrient content already present in them or other complementary nutrients. The term was introduced in Japan in the 1980s for referring processed food containing nutrient conferring of some additional health benefits apart from its own nutritional value (Arai 1996), whereas, in China, designer food (referred to as health foods) is used in their traditional medicine.
Designer foods are normal foods fortified with health-promoting ingredients. These foods are similar in appearance to normal foods and are consumed regularly as a part of the diet. Designer foods are produced by the process of fortification or nutrification. With the advances in the biotechnology, biofortification of foods using technologies such as recombinant DNA technology and fermentation procedures are gaining an advantage in the industry.
The ultimate acceptability and extensive use of designer foods depend on proper regulation in the market by the regulatory authorities of the country and by creating consumer awareness about their health benefits through various nationwide programs.
(1) Designer eggs: ———-
- “Designer eggs” are those in which the content has been modified from the standard egg.
- Developed due to problems arising out of HIGH CHOLESTEROL LEVEL and SALMONELLA.
- The concept was put forward by Dr. J. Sim of the University of Alberta, N.A.
- Production of Designer Eggs egg quality can Be Modifying be accomplished by inducing metabolic changes in the hen that can result in the synthesis of compounds that essentially end up in her egg.
- change the characteristics of membrane transport to facilitate movement of compounds into the egg.
The growing role of human nutrition in both the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases has led to the convergence of the consumer and governmental attention on the nutritional quality of foods. The food industry has responded to the demand for foods of superior health benefits by modifying the nutritional profile of popular foods like eggs and meat.
Consumer awareness on the relationship between dietary lipid and the incidence of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) changed their attitude towards egg and meat consumption. The per capita consumption of egg and meat has not increased in required number and quantity, respectively, through the years because of the fear that egg yolk and meat contain high cholesterol.
Due to unsuccessful attempts to significantly reduce cholesterol content of eggs through genetic, nutritional, pharmacological tools, researchers have turned towards using the egg and meat as a vehicle for delivering essential nutrients that were traditionally absent or in low concentration in those products.
With the focus on concepts such as the glycemic index, macronutrient ratios, and food groups, essential fatty acids (EFA) are one of the most neglected aspects of nutrition in modern society. Even though a diet that is nutritious by most standards can be deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3 fatty acids are of particular importance to the present day enlightened consumers.
Read also:- Blood Protozoan Diseases of Ruminants
Cholesterol scare ——–
The egg is a cholesterol-rich food. A large egg contains about 210 mg of cholesterol. Assumptions like egg consumption will increase the serum cholesterol levels directly, many have reduced the egg consumption. This “cholesterol phobia” has scared the people in developed countries until 1990 and still continued to do so in developing countries including India due to ignorance; leading to low egg consumption.
Even though the nutritional superiority of the egg has been proved beyond doubt, the egg consumption in India is very low due to vegetarianism as well as cholesterol scare. Although the nutritionists and cardiologists have established that there is only an insignificant correlation between dietary and serum cholesterol levels; the consumers are still scared of consuming cholesterol-rich foods, hence there is an urgent need to reduce the egg yolk cholesterol levels as well as to incorporate several other health-promoting components in the egg.
The industry is presently geared in the production of specialty eggs that have higher or enriched levels of certain nutrients already present in the eggs or lower the levels of other nutrients, which are considered undesirable for some reasons. Such eggs are called “designer eggs”, “functional eggs”, “diet eggs”, ” “omega-3 fatty acid enriched eggs”, which are capable of safeguarding the health of the consumers. The designer egg will be produced with rich health-promoting components like omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E along with the incorporation of some more additional health-promoting components, like anti-oxidants, carotenoid pigments, certain vitamins, and minerals; besides reducing the yolk cholesterol levels.
In general, omega-3 fatty acids reduced the LDL-Cholesterol (Bad cholesterol) levels in serum, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Further, they scavenge the free radicals and act as immunomodulators in the persons, consuming such eggs regularly.
Read also:- ब्रोकली की उन्नत खेती एवं उत्पादन तकनीक
In general, eggs are regarded as highly nutritious food. The egg is considered as nature’s most complete food containing high-quality proteins, a 2 to 1 ratio of unsaturated fats to saturated fats an excellent source of iron, phosphorus and other minerals and all vitamins with the exception of vitamin C. Multifunctional attributes of eggs have contributed to their continuing use an ingredient in many food items. The antibacterial components in the egg and their contribution to food safety is an acknowledged fact.
One of the ways to market a new product is to change the old product. The contents of the chicken egg can be changed in such ways as to be more healthful and appealing to a segment of our consumers who are willing to pay for those changes in the egg. “Designer eggs” are those in which the content has been modified from the standard egg. There are various types of Designer eggs which are highly popular in western countries and in certain cities in India like Banglore (KOOL KOMESTIBLES PVT LTD).
1.a. Omega-3 eggs or Omega-3 PUFA Omega-3—-
Omega-3 fatty acids are a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) also known as n-3 fatty acids. n-3 denotes the position of the first double bond in the carbon chain starting from the methyl end of the molecule being on the third carbon atom. Majority of birds and animals including human beings cannot synthesize these n-3 fatty acids, hence they are dietary essential. A designer egg is rich in Omega-3 (or) n-3 fatty acids such as.
Alpha- Linolenic acid (ALA) : C18:3n-3 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) : C20: 5n-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) : C22:6n-3 Unfortunately, the foodstuffs rich in these n-3 fatty acids namely linseed and fish oils are having undesirable flavor and consistency, hence not relished commonly by human beings. They can be made acceptable by incorporating these beneficial n-3 fatty acids into eggs.
Read also:- प्याज की उन्नत खेती एवं उत्पादन तकनीक
Sources of Omega-3 fatty acids——-
- Sardine fish
- Anchovy Fish
- Fish oil
- Linseed/Flaxseed & oils
- Rapeseed/Canola & oils
- Pearl Millet • Algae
Clinical Significance – Omega-3 Fatty acids ——
With the pioneering discovery of the fact that omega-3 fatty acids were responsible for the lesser incidence of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in Greenland Eskimos, whose staple diet is the fish. Research over the past decades on the various health benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils has shown that omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients for adults and children alike. The dietary omega-3 fatty acids reduce plasma triglycerides, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and atherosclerosis particularly in diabetics, tumor growth, skin disease and enhance immunity. The potential health benefits of n-3 fatty acids in human diet have also drawn attention and altering the fatty acid composition of the egg and tissue through dietary ingredients
The types of fatty acids found in the yolk of an egg are directly related to the types of fat fed to the chicken. Thus, adding products high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as flaxseed, marine algae, fish and fish oil, to chicken feed can increase the omega-3 fatty acid content in the egg yolk. Omega-3 fatty acids are important for optimal development of an infant’s brain and eyes. These fats also have many other important benefits, including helping reduce one’s risk of arteriosclerosis and stroke. Omega-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs taste and cook like other eggs, but typically have a darker yolk color
Fortification of omega-3 fatty acid not only increases the health benefits of designer egg but also reduces the cholesterol content of the egg by replacing saturated fatty acid in egg yolk. The dietary cholesterol and fatty acids play an important role in various cardiovascular diseases. The scientific attempt to reduce cholesterol content in the diet is the promising approach for the management of cholesterol (Hargis 1988). Designer eggs were also developed by replacing yolk cholesterol with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).
CLA is studied for its various health-related properties such as anti-adipogenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory (Magdalena et al. 2008). Raes et al. (2002) produced designer egg enriched with CLA by feeding hens with CLA rich diet and found that adding CLA to layers diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids produces CLA enriched eggs. Cook et al. (2000) had patented a method of production of CLA enriched designer eggs by feeding poultry a diet enriched in CLA. Dietary addition of CLA to hens diet decreased lipid content and concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk, but increased CLA and saturated FA. CLA supplementation of the egg also increased yolk moisture content, firmness and impaired the sensory quality of eggs.
1.b. Eggs with lower saturated fat and cholesterol:——-
Some designer egg manufacturers have focused on lowering the cholesterol and ratio of saturated to unsaturated fat in their eggs. This is generally done by feeding the chickens an all-vegetarian diet high in canola oil. To market a product as being lower in cholesterol or saturated fat, the product must have 25 percent less of the nutrient in question than the standard product. A large egg contains approximately 200-220 milligrams of cholesterol.
Read also:- कलम रोपण पद्धति- बिना बीज उगाए टमाटर
1.c. Cage-free or free-roaming eggs: ——-
The majority of commercial egg-laying chickens around the world are housed in cages. Caging hens reduces the spread of disease by separating birds from their feces, reduces that amount of dust and ammonia present in the hen house and reduces the amount of physical labor required to manage chickens and collect the eggs. However, this system can be viewed as being less humane to the chicken; therefore, there is a niche market for eggs produced by chickens raised in a cage-free or free-roaming system. Typically, birds raised in a cage-free or free-roaming system are kept inside and maintained on the floor of the poultry house. Only if the label says “free-range” can you expect that the chickens were allowed to graze or roam outdoors. India can trap this market since most of the poultry in India are free roaming birds.
1.d. Organic eggs: ———
To be label as organically produced eggs, the eggs must be produced from hens that have been fed certified-organic feed produced without synthetic pesticides or herbicides, antibiotics or genetically-modified crops. In addition, synthetic pesticides cannot be used to control parasites that may affect the chicken. Typically, organic eggs also are produced from hens in cage-free systems .This market can also be tapped by Indian farmers.The cost incurred will be for labor and cost of labeling in India labor is cheap and Labeling can be done at a price of 5% of the total output by the nodal agency.
1e Vegetarian Eggs—-
- Diet containing only ingredients of plant origin.
- Nutrient content of these eggs is the same as that of regular eggs
1f.Pasteurized Shell Eggs —–
- Heat treated to kill potential salmonella bacteria found inside.
- Due to the heat processing, these eggs may have slightly lower levels of heat sensitive vitamins.
- Packaged in liquid, frozen or dried form.
- Used in recipes like homemade ice-cream or in Caesar salad dressing.
- Some cultures consider fertile eggs a delicacy.
- no nutritional difference between fertile eggs and generic eggs.
- Thoroughly cooking generic shell eggs destroy any potential salmonella bacteria in the egg.
Compiled & shared by-
DR RAJESH KUMAR SINGH
Mob. No.- 9431309542,
Post no-609 Dt-19/03/2018