agriculture पशुपालन

Blood Protozoan Diseases of Ruminants

Written by bheru lal gaderi


Haemoprotozoan diseases cause devastating losses to the livestock industry through out the world. However, it is known that most of blood protozoan parasites cause anemia by inducing erythrophagocytosis. Most of the haemoprotozoan parasites are tick borne and is of great economic importance in Asia and has always been a formidable barrier to the survival of exotic and cross bred cattle in India

Blood Protozoan Diseases of Ruminants

Blood protozoan parasites have gained importance because of the dreadful diseases like Theileriosis, Babesiosis, Trypanosomiasis, Anaplasmosis, and  Ehrilichiosis.  These  diseases  invariably  cause  high mortality  and morbidity especially in crossbred and exotic animals and bring about a marked reduction in milk yield and production. The ticks being the transmitters of these protozoan parasites great difficulty is experienced in controlling these diseases. Vaccines against ticks and few blood protozoan are now being evolved.

Read also – पशुओं में उग्र उपच (आफरा) कारण एवं उपचार



Causative organism: Trypanosoma evansi

Hemoflagellate-Monomorphic-Medium  sized  15-35p  well  developed undulating membrane; Vesicular nucleus in the centre.


Affects a wide variety of domestic animals viz, camels, horses, mules, cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and pigs. Wild animals viz, elephant, deer, fox, jackels etc.


  1. Mechanically  by  biting  flies  like  tabanus,  stomoxys,  Liperosia, Hippoboscid. Soft ticks like omithodorus sp, fleas. Musca sp, Aedes etc.
  2. Transmission through milk is also possible
  3. Dogs and other carnivores get infection by ingesting flesh of infected carcasses.


Occurs all over India particularly Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Utter pradesh Maharastra. Also occurs in Far east, N.Africa Central and S.America.

Read also – बाईपास वसा की डेयरी पशुओं में उपयोगिता


In India an increase in disease has been associated with monsoon months reaching the peak in October and November when fly breeding is at its highest.

Disease Caused:-

A variety of local names descriptive of clinical signs. Surra-Rotten or emaciation;  Purana-chronic  or  old;  tibersa-Three  year  disease;  Dublaemaciated.

Pathogenesis and Symptoms:-

Symptoms usually appear 1-2 weeks after infection. More serious in young and debilitated. A sudden flare up occurs due to stress and other concurrent diseases like RP and FMD.


Nervous form not a common feature. High temperature, Inclining, falling down, rolling of eye balls and animals die in convulsions in few hours.


Incoordination of muscular movements, staggering gait, eyes staring and wide open, shows apparent blindness. groaning profuse salivation, frequent micturition twitching of muscles shivering of body followed by coma collapse and death in 6-12 hrs. Temperature 39-41°C but it is not a constant symptom. The temperature become subnormal before death.

Read also – अंगोरा खरगोश पालन कर कृषि आय बढ़ाये

Subacute and Chronic:-

Animal dull and sleepy. Intermittent fever is characteristic Lacrimation, Progressive emaciation, edema, diarrhoea, death from exhaustion.


  1. Epidemiology, history of the case and clinical symptoms
  2. Microscopic examination (a) Wet  film  examination (b)  Stained


  1. Biological examination: Inoculable into various experimental animals.
  2. Serological test CFT Agglutination test, H.A. test ELISA.
  3. Chemical:Mercuric chloride, Stilbamide test, formal gel test, Nitric acid test.


  • Antrycide prosalt
  • Suramin-12mg/kg B.wt. Given 10% 1/v
  • Diminazene aceturate-3.5 mg/kg B.wt. 1/m Homidium Bormide-1mg/kg 1/m
  • Isometamidium-0.5-1 mg/kg 1/m


  1. Chemotherapy
  2. Treatment of infected host and carriers
  3. Control of flies
  4. Bush clearance
  5. Destruction of game animals

Read also – बकरी पालन : एक प्रभावी आर्थिक व्यवसाय

Trypanosoma theileri:-

Occult or cryptic trypanosome, Largest trypanosome 60-70p

Host:- Cattle and Buffaloes


Cyclical  transmission  by  various  Tabanid  files  like  Tabanus  sp Haematopota sp.


Ordinarily non pathogenic. But under conditions of stress seen in large numbers sand may cause symptoms of Surra.

  1. Pyrexia, Hemoglobinuria.
  2. Small nodules occasionally seen in skin.
  3. Reduced milk, occasionally abortion in cattle.
  4. Occasional death.


Rarely seen in blood smear

Read also – पौष्टिक आहार पशुओं के लिए एक वरदान


Causative organism:-

Theileria annulata. The organisms in the RBCS occur more commonly as round, oval or ring shaped (0.5-1.51.1) Rod Shapes, commas and anaplasma like organisms may also occur.

Host Cattle,water buffalo Vector Hyalomma sp. Trans-Stadial transmission.


Indian continent, Mediterranean, N.Africa, Middle east and central Asia.


  1. Disease is seasonal and coincides with increase tick activity.
  2. Stress may be a contributing factor.
  3. Indigenous cattle and buffaloes mostly act as carriers and rarely show clinical signs.


Incubation period is 9-25 days. Mortality 10-90%

 Per Acute:-

Seen in exotic animals. Sudden death with high rise of temperature.


  1. Usually Marked rise of temperature 40-42°C. Fever is continuous or intermittent persist for 5-20 days.
  2. Swelling of superficial lymph glands like prescapular•
  3. Eyelids swollen, lacrimation, nasal discharge
  4. Inappetence, cessation of rumination.
  5. Diarrhoea with blood an mucus in feces.
  6. Anemia conjunctiva icteric.
  7. Emaciation, death 8-15 days after the onset of symptoms.


Irregular fever  10-15 days. Some degree of anemia, icterus and the animal die or recover after 2 months. Pregnant animals may abort.

Read also – चूजों का उचित प्रबंधन एवं उचित रख-रखाव


Intermittent fever. Inappetence, Marked emaciation, slight digestive disturbance, moderate anemia, cutaneous lesions in the form of skin eruptions may be noticed.


  1. Examination of lymph node biopsy smear for Koch’s blue bodies.
  2. Examine thin blood smears from peripheral vein for RBC form
  3. Serological tests like IHA, IFAT, CFT, ELISA.


Buparvaquone 2.5mg/kg B.wt.1/m


  1. Tick control
  2. Vaccination with tissue culture schizont vaccine.

Read also – स्वच्छ दूध उत्पादन की विशेषताएं एवं प्रबंधन

Theileria Hirci:-

Host-Sheep and goats; Round to oval size Vector-Rhipicephalus Highly pathogenic 100% mortality

Theileris ovis:- Cause benign disease-pathogenesis mild.


Causative organism:- Babesia bigemina

This is a large form 4-5p wide. The organisms are characteristically pear shaped and lie in pairs forming an acute angle in erythrocytes. Round oval or irregularly shaped forms may occur.


Boophilus sp-transovarian transmission, Transtadial transmission also occurs (Haemaphysalis SP Rhipicephalus sp)

Distribution:- Tropical and sub tropical

Read also – जुनोसिस : पशुओं से मनुष्य में होने वाला संक्रामक रोग कारण एवं बचाव


Highly pathogenic in adults and less for calves. Incubation period 8-15 days.


  1. High rise of temperature 40-41°C for a week or more
  2. Profound anaemia
  3. Hemoglobinuria
  4. General depression, dull ‘restless, anorexia stop ruminating and pass yellowish brown faeces.
  5. Mortality high in acute cases 50-90%.

Read also – पशुओं में त्वचा रोग एवं उनकी रोकथाम


Intermittent  temperature  rise,  no  hemoglobinuria,  Diarrohea  or constipation with hard yellow faeces. Loss of condition and emaciation. In Babesia bovis cerebral form of infection with sudden death in 12-36 hrs.  Steep rise in temperature, ataxia, pedalling movements and overt aggressivity (attacks)


  1. Clinical signs
  2. Confirmation by examination of blood smear
  3. Serological tests like CFT, IFAT, IHA.


  • Diminazence aceturate 3.5mg/kg 1/m
  • Imidocarb diproprionate 1.2-2.4 mg/kg s/c Amicarbalide disethionate 5-10 mg/kg 1/m Quinuronium sulfate 1-2 mg/kg s/c or 1/m


  1. Tick control
  2. Immunization with attenuated strains.
  3. controlled immunization using Babesicial drug- Inoculation of non attenuated Babesia strain and application of babesicidal drug.
  4. Babesia bovis Cattle,  divergen Cattle, motasi


Sheep and goats resemble Babesia bigemina


Rhipicephalus sp and Haemaphysalis sp Acute or chronic disease.

Babesia ovis-Sheep and goats; Less severe that Babesia motasi Rickettsiales Anaplasmosis.

Read also – दुधारू पशुओं को परजीवियों से कैसे बचाएं

Causative agent:-

  • Anaplasma marginale
  • Small, spherical bodies red to dark red in color inside the RBCs 0.2-0.5p with no cytoplasm.
  • Host: Cattle, dear sheep and goats.


  1. By various blood sucking flies viz Tabanus, deer flies, stable flies and


  1. Mechanical transmission-Major and minor operations.
  2. Carrier cattle can play important role in epidemiologies.


Incubation period is  15-36 days. The disease is more severe in adult cattle (Above 18 months). Mortality may reach 50% General depression, fever (40-41°C),  reduced  milk  production,  weight  loss,  progressive  anemia, dehydration and icterus occurs. Affected animals often succumb to hypoxia when moved or handled for treatment. Recovered animals often remain carriers for life.


  1. Clinical signs
  2. Blood smear examination
  3. Serological tests like CFT, IFAT; ELISA


Tetrecyclines 5-10 mg/kg i/m or i/v


  1. Vaccination with A. Centrale to reduce severity of subsequent infection with virulent A. marginale.
  1. Use of virulent and attenuated A. Marginale isolates to induce immunity or a chronic carrier status in calves where anaplasmosis is endemic.

Read also – गर्मियों में पशुओं का समुचित देखभाल एवं रखरखाव


Causative agent:-

Ehrlichia bovis occurs in mononuclear cells of cattle. small pleomorphic coccoid to ellipsoidal organism may occur singly or in compact colonies as a morula.

Transmission By lxodid ticks Hyalomma sp.


  • Anorexia, Fever Incoordination and enlargement of lymph nodes. It is important in exotic cattle.
  • Diagnosis :- Examination of blood smear .
  • Treatment :- Tetracylines 5 mg/kg 1/m-4 days
  • Control Tick control.

Read also – पशु खरीद के समय ध्यान देने योग्य बातें

 Homeopathic Treatment of Babesiosis :: 

1. Crotalus horridus 200 :- When  general disorganization after blood, hemorrhages  and Jaundice, fever.

Dose :- 1 dose once in 3 hrs for 4 days

2. Merc cor :- When coffee coloured urine

Dose :- BID for  2 days

3. Ferrum phos 6x : When pyrexia and hemoglobinuria.

Dose :- 10 pills every 2 hrs  for 2-4 days

4. Kali. chlor 200 + Phosphorus 200

Dose : one dose Q.I.D.  for 2 days

Read also – ‘साइलेज’ हरे चारे की चिंता से मुक्ति

Homeopathic Treatment of  THEILERIOSIS :-

1. Merc Sol 200:   It is a good  remedy when  lymphatic  system  is affected including  glands.

Dose : One dose BID 2 – 4 days .

2. Phytolocca 200 : It is prominently glandular remedy.

Dose :One dose Q.I.D  for 2 – 4 days

3. Conium 200 : Enlarged glands debility  lachrymation and photophobia

Dose : one dose Q.I.D for 1 – 7 days

4. Baryta. carb 200 :   It is also  a very good  glandular  remedy  and can be mixed with  conium  200  and given  1 dose  Q.I.D  for 1 – 7 days.

Homeopathic Treatment of  TRYPANOSOMIASIS : ( Surra)

1. Hyocyamus 200 :  twitching  of eye lids,

Dose :- One dose every hr  till relief.

2. Belladonna 200 : When convulsions, nasal discharge and  conjunctivitis .

Dose :- One dose  every 1 hr till relief.

3. Strychinum 30 or 200 : Convulsion and twitching,  salivation.

Dose :- One dose   every 1 hr  till relief.

4. Circuta virosa  30 or 200 :   Grinding  of teeth, convulsions

Dose :- One dose  every one hr till relief

Read also  – भारतीय गाय की प्रमुख नस्ले एवं विवरण

Homeopathic Treatment of   Anoplasmosis :-

1. Trinitro tolune 3 : When blood  cells are destroyed,  hemolytic  Jaundice, increased heart rate,

Dose:- One dose  Q.I.D  for 2-4 days

2. Belladonna 30 or 200 : Lachrymation, temperature,  muscle  tremors, affections of glands,

Dose :- Q.I.D for 2 days

Post no-593 Dt-08/03/2018

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bheru lal gaderi

Hello! My name is Bheru Lal Gaderi, a full time internet marketer and blogger from Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India. Shouttermouth is my Blog here I write about Tips and Tricks,Making Money Online – SEO – Blogging and much more. Do check it out! Thanks.